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Small cylindrical gelatin containers that hold dry powder or liquid medicinal agents.
provide a gradual but continuous release of a drug because the granules within the capsules dissolve at different rates
Time-released or Sustained-release
Flat disks containing a medicinal agent in a suitably flavored base; are held in the mouth to dissolve slowly, thus releasing the therapeutic ingredients.
dried, powdered drugs that have been compressed into small disks.
clear liquids made up of drugs dissolved in alcohol and water; used primarily when the drug will not dissolve in water alone.
dispersions of small droplets of water in oil or oil in water; used to mask bitter tastes or provide better solubility to certain drugs.
liquid dose forms that contain solid, insoluble drug particles dispersed in a liquid base; should be shaken well before administration to ensure thorough mixing of the particles.
Major advantages of administration via the rectal route:
- bypassing the digestive enzymes
- avoiding irritation of the mouth, the esophagus, and the stomach
- when nausea or vomiting is present
For patients who cannot swallow or who have had oral surgery, the method may be used.
NG or PEG
The primary purpose of the NG method is to
bypass the mouth and pharynx
Major disadvantage of the oral route is
has the slowest and least dependable rate of absorption
The oral route should not be used in the following situations:
- if the drug may harm or discolor the teeth
- if the patient is vomiting
- if the patient has gastric or intestinal suctioning
- if patient is likely to aspirate
- if patient is unconscious
- if the patient is unable to swallow (dysphagia)
With the ENTERAL route, drugs are administered directly into the GI tract by the following methods:
oral, rectal, or PEG or NG
The route is safe, most convenient, and relatively economical, and dose forms are readily available for most medications
NG tubes should be flushed with at least mL of water before and after medication administration
The reason for flushing NG tubes with 30mL of water, before and after administration is to:
- to clear the tube for drug delivery
- it facilitates drug transport to the intestines
- it indicates whether the tube has been cleared
When more than one medication is to be administered at about the same time, how much water should you flush with between each medication?
5 to 10 mL of water
whenever possible, a form of a drug should be used for NG administration
If it is necessary to use a crushed tablet, how much water should you dissolve it in for NG tube administration?
30 mL of water
How long after administration of medication should you evaluate for effectiveness and document?
1 hour, or 30 minutes if it is a narcotic
Medications given orally are absorbed:
slower than by other routes
When giving an intermittent enteral feeding, the residual aspirate in an adult is 150 mL. the nurse should:
Notify MD if no orders are specified
Less than mL of residual, feeding can be resumed
When giving oral medications, the nurse should first:
Identify the patient
The nurse is to administer several medications to the patient via an NG tube. The nurse's first action is to:
Check for placement of the tube