Parenteral Administration: Safe Preparation of Parenteral Medications

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Parenteral Administration: Safe Preparation of Parenteral Medications
2014-02-23 21:40:58
Chapter 10
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  1. administration by any route other than the Gastrointestinal route.
    Parenteral Route
  2. When drugs are given parenterally rather than orally:
    • the onset of drug action is more rapid but shorter duration
    • the dose is often smaller because of drug potency
    • the cost of drug therapy is often greater
  3. the nurse preparing and administering the medication must focus on:
    • basic knowledge regarding the drugs being ordered, prepared, and administered
    • symptoms for which the drug is ordered and a collection of baseline data to be used to monitor the effectiveness of the drug
    • the nursing assessments needed to detect, prevent, and improve adverse events
  4. Injections require skill and special care because of:
    • the trauma at the site of needle puncture
    • possibility of infection
    • chance of allergic reaction
    • once a drug is injected, it is no longer retrievable
  5. Estimates show that there are              to               needlesticks and percutaneous injuries to health care workers annually
    600,000 to 800,000
  6. One-third of all "sharps" injuries are related to the                process
  7. What are the three parts of a syringe?
    • barrel
    • plunger
    • tip
  8. outer portion of syringe where the calibrations for measurements are located
  9. in inner Cylindrical portion of the syringe that fits snugly into the barrel; used to draw up and eject the solution from the syringe
  10. the portion of the syringe that holds the needle
  11. Syringes are made of either             or            .
    glass or hard plastic
  12. Syringes are calibrated in              ,            , or               .
    mL, units, minims, cc's
  13. Most commonly used syringes are:
    1mL, 3mL, and 5mL
  14. the 1mL syringe used to measure small volumes of medication accurately
    Tuberculin syringe
  15. this syringe has a scale specifically calibrated for the measurement of insulin
    the insulin syringe
  16. What are the parts of a needle?
    • the hub
    • the shaft
    • the beveled
  17. the                is the diameter of the hole through the needle
    the needle gauge
  18. The size of syringe used is determined by:
    • the volume of medication
    • the degree of accuracy needed for measurement of the dose
    • the medication to be administered
  19. glass containers that usually contain only a single dose of medication
  20. glass containers that contain one or more doses of a sterile medication
  21. glass containers with two compartments (lower chamber contains drug; upper chamber contains a sterile solution); usually contains only a singe dose of medication
  22. the maximum volume for IM injection at one site for small children and older infants is
  23. Adults can usually tolerate a maximum volume of                  in one site for IM (except the deltoid which is 1mL max)
  24. Gauge size: Intradermal
  25. Gauge size: Subcutaneous
  26. Gauge size: Intramuscular
  27. Gauge size: Intravenous
    • 20-22g (for IV fluids)
    • 15-20g (for blood administration)
  28. The process of adding a solution to a medication in powdered form to dissolve it and form a solution is referred to as
  29. The solutions commonly used for reconstitution are:
    • sterile water
    • normal saline
    • 5% dextrose and water
    • bacterial static water
  30. a new fast-acting insulin; works within 5 to 15 minutes; can be administered 5 minutes before meals; clear in appearance
    Lispro insulin
  31. fast-acting insulin; must be administered 30 to 60 minutes before meals; only insulin that may be given IV; clear in appearance
    Regular Insulin
  32. a new long-acting insulin; administered at anytime during the day for 24- hour coverage without a peak; clear in appearance; cannot be mixed with any other insulin
    Lantus Insulin
  33. have become popular for patients who must mix fast-acting and intermediate-acting insulin; purpose is to stimulate the varying levels of insulin within the bodies of diabetic persons
    Fixed combination insulins
  34. Basic action times of insulins
    • Rapid acting-ex Regular, Novolog, Lispro
    • intermediate acting-ex NPH
    • long acting- ex Lantus, Levemier
  35. To prepare two insulins in one syringe you must:
    • check the compatibility of the two drugs to be mixed before starting to prepare the medications
    • Check the labels of the medication against the medication order
    • Check the following: type, concentration, expiration date, appearance, temperature