Ethics 1

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  1. Ethical Subjectivism is the idea that our moral opinions are based on __________.
  2. True or False. It is a fact that Nazis exterminated millions of innocent people, but according to Ethical Subjectivism, it is not a fact that what they did was evil.
  3. According to Rachels, the first stage of Ethical Subjectivism is called:
    Simple Subjectivism
  4. True or False. Rachels argues that there are moral facts, in the same way that there are planets and trees and spoons.
  5. Rachels believes that moral truths are truths of __________.
  6. What is the view that we in fact pursue our own self-interest?
    Psychological Egoism
  7. What is the view that we ought to pursue our own self-interest?
    Ethical Egoism
  8. True or False. Psychological Egoism is a theory of ethics.
  9. According to ________  ________, we may believe ourselves to be noble and self-sacrificing but this is only an illusion.
    Psychological Egoism
  10. Ayn Rand was highly critical of the Ethics of ___________.
  11. Rachels argues that justifying Ethical Egoism is nearly impossible given which general principle?
    The Principle of Equal Treatment
  12. True or False. Rachels argues that Ethical Egoism is an utterly arbitrary doctrine.
  13. The name of the moral theory that holds to view that God decides what is right and wrong.
    The Divine Command Theory
  14. In a book called Euthyphro, this ancient thinker questioned the idea that God creates the moral truth:
  15. The Theory of Natural Law was built off of the ideas of which Greek philosopher?
  16. True or False. Rachels argues that right and wrong are not to be understood in terms of religious faith but in terms of reason and conscience.
  17. Which British philosopher believed that morality should be understood as the solution to a practical problem that arises for self-interested human beings?
    Thomas Hobbes
  18. Thomas Hobbes believed that having no government institutions would lead to what he called:
    "the state of nature"
  19. According to Thomas Hobbes, the solution to the practical problem of self-interested human beings is:
    "social contract"
  20. True or False. In the "prisoner's dilemma" type situation it is most rational to act selfishly.
  21. What provides a way out of the "prisoner-dilemma"?
    "Only an enforceable agreement"
  22. Rachels refers to Martin Luther King Jr. and Gandhi as examples of enacting:
    Civil disobedience
  23. True or False. According to "social contract" theory, we are never justified in defying the law.
  24. According to _________ ________ , there is no universal truth in ethics.
    Cultural Relativists
  25. Cultural Relativists maintain that we should adopt an attitude of ________ towards other cultures.
  26. __________ _________ believe that different societies have different moral codes.
    Cultural Relativists
  27. According to Rachels, the Cultural Differences Argument:

    A. is basically sound
    B. is rooted in false premise
    C. demonstrates the truth of Cultural    Relativism
    D. draws a conclusion that does not follow from the argument's premise
    D. draws a conclusion that does not follow from the argument's premise
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of the following consequences follows from taking Cultural Relativism to be true?
    A. Asking whether a given action conforms to the code of one's society is sufficient for determining that action's rightness or wrongness.
    B. The assumption that our society has made moral progress since the days of slavery becomes doubtful
    C. A society tolerant of Jew cannot be said to be superior to an anti-Semitic society.
    D. All of these are true
    D. All of these are true
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Among the Eskimos, female infanticide is practiced more frequently than male infanticide because:
    Eskimo males die prematurely at much higher rates than Eskimo females.
  30. From Cultural Relativism, Rachels argues, that we can learn to:
    keep an open mind.
  31. True or False. That Different cultures have different moral codes is a relatively recent discovery.
  32. True or False. According to Rachels, the fact that different cultures have different moral codes implies that moral values lack objective truth.
  33. True or False. If Cultural Relativism is true, a social "reformer" cannot legitimately challenge the ideals of his or her society.
  34. True or False. Rachels thinks that it makes no sense to condemn societies as inferior to our own.
  35. True or False. Rachels believes that all cutural practices can be tested against a rational standard of rightness or wrongness.
  36. What does Mackie believe by calling his view an "error theory"
    His theory attributes a mistake to most peoples basic moral thought.
  37. What is the conclusion of the argument from relativity?
    There are no objective values.
  38. What is Mackie's view of categorical imperatives?
    There are no objectively binding categorical imperatives.
  39. List 3 reasons why Mackie thinks that people believe in objective values:
    • They are socially conditioned to do so.
    • They project their attitudes onto things in the world.
    • People desire their moral judgements to be binding on others.
  40. List three claims that Mackie makes during his argument from queerness:
    • Moral properties could be known only through a strange faculty of intuition.
    • Moral properties would be properties of a very strange sort
    • Moral properties would bear a mysterious relation to non moral facts.
  41. According to King, how do the oppressed gain freedom?
    by demanding it from their oppressors.
  42. List three conditions that must be met for law-breaking to be just?
    • The breaking of the law must be done openly.
    • The breaker of the law must be willing to accept the penalty.
    • The law being broken must be unjust.
  43. According to King, the greatest obstacle to civil rights is:
    the white moderate more committed to "order" than to justice.
  44. What point does King intend to make by comparing his methods to the practice of medicine?
    The "disease" of injustice must be exposed to the light of day to be cured.
  45. True or False. King claims that and unjust law is no law at all.
  46. According to King, a law that a minority population had no part in shaping but is compelled to obey is an unjust law.
  47. True or False. According to King, Socrates practiced civil disobedience.
  48. True or False. King would rather see his goals halfheartedly embraced than rejected outright.
  49. True or False. King embraces the label of "extremist".
  50. True or False. Marquis believes that abortion's moral status can be resolved by establishing whether or not the fetus is a human person.
  51. True or False. Marquis' analysis begins with the assumption that murder is wrong.
    True "It is wrong to kill us."
  52. What does Marquis believe to be true about both the typical pro-choice and anti-abortion positions?
    Both depend on plausible moral positions.
  53. Marquis argues that the anti-abortionist's principles regarding killing are often too _______, whereas the pro-choicer's principles are often too _________.
    • broad
    • narrow
  54. List three implications that Marquis cites to make his theory of the wrongness of killing seem more plausible:
    • It is compatible with the belief that killing certain kinds of nonhuman beings is wrong.
    • It fits well with the attitudes of dying.
    • It justifies the belief that infanticide is immoral.
  55. What does Marquis believe his argument establishes?
    That killing is prima facie seriously wrong.
Card Set:
Ethics 1
2014-02-24 03:37:24

Ethics Mid-Term
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