TTK chapter 18

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TTK chapter 18
2014-02-23 21:35:12
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  1. Circulation Pathway of Blood
    Exits Heart via (Artery) Branches until they become (capillary beds) As blood leaves capillary beds, it flows into (veins), which takes it back to the (heart)
  2. Components of blood
    • 1 Plasma
    • 2 Formed elements(Red blood cells, White blood cells, and platelets)
  3. Buffy coat
    Thin layer of white blood cells and platelets that forms a layer between plasma and red blood cells
  4. Hematocrit
    • Normal Values:
    • Males:
    • 40-54%
    • Females
    • 38-46%
  5. What are these characteristics of blood?
    • Color: high oxygen means it is bright red low oxygen makes it dark red
    • Taste:coppery
    • Density:denser than water (1025 kg/m3
    • Viscosity: thicker than water
    • pH range: (Slightly basic) 7.35-7.45
    • Temperature: 38 degrees celcius
    • Average adult volume:
    •      Males: 5-6 liters
    •      Females: 4-5 liters
  6. Functions of blood
    • 1 Transportation
    • 2 Regulation
    • 3 protection
  7. Distributive functions include
    • 1 oxygen from lungs to cells and carbon dioxide from cells to lungs
    • 2 carries nutrients from gi tract to body cells
    • 3 hormones from endocrine glands to body cells
  8. Regulatory functions include
    1 Maintaining homeostasis
  9. 2 regulates pH through buffers
  10. 3 helps adjust body temperature
  11. Protective functions include
    1 Clots in response to injury

    2 White blood cells protect from disease
  12. Blood Plasma
    liquid that contains dissolved substances, and formed elements (protein)
  13. Albumin
    Most plentiful plasma protein, help maintain proper blood osmotic pressure
  14. Formed elements
  15. 1  Red blood cells
    • 2 White
    • blood cells protect from disease
    • 3
    • Platelets
  16. Erythrocytes
    Structure: biconcave, lack a nucleus or other organelles, can neither reproduce or caryy on extensive metabolic activity
  17. Hemoglobin
    oxygen carrying protein that gives red blood cells their color
  18. Oxyhemoglobin
    Hemoglobin combined with oxygen
  19. Deoxyhemoglobin
    hemoglobin without oxygen
  20. Carbaminohemoglobin
    compound of hemoglobinand carbon dioxide
  21. Hematopoiesis
    process by which the fored elements of blood are formed
  22. Hemocytoblast
    stem cells that give rise to all the other blood cells
  23. Erythropoiesis
    production of red blood cells
  24. Myeloid stem cell
    begin and complete development in red bone marrow, creates red blood cells, platelets, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and monocytes
  25. Proerythroblast
    first stage of creating a red blood cell
  26. Reticulocytes
    cell near the end of the sequence of creating a red blood cell that has ejected its nucleus
  27. Erythropoietin (EPO)
    hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells
  28. EPO formation can be triggered by
  29. Hypoxia
  30. Testosterone
  31. Circulation
  32. Role of testosterone in EPO production
    Stimulates production of EPO
  33. Iron's importance to hemoglobin
    It can bind to oxygen making it so hemoglobin can carry more
  34. Where does oxygen bind to the hemoglobin
    The heme ring
  35. How many oxygen molecules can hemoglobin bind with
  36. Bilirubin
    yellow orange pigment that occurs after iron is removed from heme and is turned into bile
  37. Where is the red-blood cell graveyard?
    The spleen
  38. Anemias are defined as (a lower than normal number of RBC's) and can be caused by
    • lack of iron
    • lack of vitamin B12
    • certain amino acids
  39. Hemorrhagic anemia
    Anemia caused by excessive bleeding
  40. Hemolytic anemia
    anemia caused by destructoin of erythrocytes
  41. Hemolytic anemia
    deficiency of all blood cells due to bone marrow not developing
  42. Hemolytic anemia
    anemia caused by a lack of iron
  43. Hemolytic anemia
    anemia caused by a lack of vitamin b12
  44. Hemolytic anemia
    inherited form of anemia caused by faulty synthesis of hemoglobin
  45. Hemolytic anemia
    inherited form of anemia in which a mutated hemoglobin changes the red blood cell into a sickle chape at low oxygen levels
  46. Hemolytic anemia
  47. abnormally
    high red blood cell count
  48. the use
    of EPO by athletes
  49. White
    Blood Cells
  50. Neutrophil
  51. Lymphocyte
  52. Monocyte
  53. Eosinophil
  54. Basophil
  55. Agranulocytes
  56. 1
  57. 2
  58. Neutrophils
    Granules are smaller evenly distributed and pale lilac in color. Nucleus has 2 to 5 lobes connected by thin strands of nuclear material. They are called neutrophils because they don't attract the acidic (red) or basic (blue) stains
  59. Basophils
    Granules are round and vary in size they stain a blue purple (basic) with basic dyes. Granules often obscure the nucleus which has two lobes.
  60. Eosinophils
    Granules are large and uniform in size that stain a red-orange (acidic) with acid dyes. Granules don't usually cover the nucleus which often as two or three lobes connected by a thin or thick strand of nuclear material
  61. Monocytes
    Nucleus is often kidney or horseshoe shaped cytoplasm is often blue-gray and has a foamy appearance this color is due to very fine azurophilic granules. Blood is merely the conduit monocytes use to get into the tissues where they enlarge and differentiate into macrophages. Fixed macrophages stay in a particular tissue others are wandering macrophages which gather at sites of infection or inflammation,
  62. Lymphocytes
    The nucleus is often round or slightly indented. The cytoplasm will stain a sjy blue and form a ring around the nucleus as the cell increases in size the more of the cytoplasm becomes visible. Larger lymphocytes are useful in figuring out if something is an acute viral infection or in some immunodefficiency diseases.
  63. Leukopoiesis
    The process of creating white blood cells
  64. Lymphoid stem cells
    Begin development in red bone maroow but complete it in lymphatic tissue. They give rise to lymphocytes and natural killer cells
  65. Myeloblasts
    Precursor to leukocytes that only occurs in bone marrow
  66. Promyelocytes
    granulocyte precursor that develops from the myeloblast and develops into the myelocyte
  67. Promyelocytes
    granulocyte precursor that develops from the myeloblast and develops into the myelocyte
  68. Myelocytes
    mmature leukocyte usually found in the bone marrow
  69. Promonocytes
    cell that arises from a monoblast and develops into a monocyte
  70. Prolymphocytes
    immediate precursor of a lymphocyte that is derived from a lymphoblast
  71. Leukopenia
    an abnormally low level of white blood cells caused by shock, rediation, and certain chemotherapy agents.
  72. Leukemias
    malignant disease of the blood forming tissue chracterized by either a uncontrolled production and accumulation of immature leukocytes that fail to reach maturiy. Or of mature leukocytes that fail to die at the end of their normal life spans
  73. Infectious mononecleosis
    infectious viral disease characterized by a swelling of the lymph glands and prolonged fatigue
  74. Platelets
    Fragment of a megakaryocyte that aids in clotting
  75. Megakaryocytes
    Large cell that splinters into 2000-3000 fragments tat are known as platelets
  76. Thrombopoietin
    Hormone that causes myeloid stem cells to turn into megakaryoblasts which in turn transform into megakaryocytes
  77. Hemostasis
    Sequence of responses that stops bleeding when blood vessels are injured (vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting)
  78. Vascular Spasm
    When the smooth muscle of ateries or arterioles contract thus reducing blood loss
  79. Platelet Plug Formations
    When platelets come into contact with a damaged blood vessel they come together to form a plug. (1) Initially platelets will contact and stick to parts of a damaged blood vessel (2) Due to adhesion the platelets characteristics will change they will extend projections allowing them to communicate and release the contents of their vesicles, the released chemicals will activate nearby platelets and sustain the vascular spasm thus further reducing blood loss (3) The release of chemicals makes other platelets in the area sticky and this stickiness causes the platelets to stick together thus creating the platelet plug.
  80. Coagulation
    Phase 1 Two pathways the extrinsic and intrinsic  lead to the formation of prothrombinase.

    Phase 2 Prothrombinase converts prothrombin into the enzyme thrombin

    Phase 3 Thrombin converts conerts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin which forms the threads of the blood clot.
  81. Clot Retraction and Repair
    Tightening of the fibrin clot platelets trapped around the fibrin threads retract thus tightening the clot. Because the platelets are connected to the damaged vessel it pulls the vessel walls closer together decreasing risk of further damage allowing for permanent repair to take place. Fibroblasts will form connective tissue and new endothelia cells will repair the blood vessel lining.
  82. Fibrinolysis How does TPA play a role
    It is an inactive enzyme that is activated into plasmin by substances in the body tissue and blood once plasmin is formed it can dissolve the clot
  83. Factors limiting clot growth
  84. 1 Clot
    formation is usually localized 
  85. 2
    anticoagulant are present in the blood and prevent or suppress clotting
  86. Thromboembolytic disorders
  87. Clotting
    that obstructs an artery
  88. Thrombus
  89. Clot
    inside an unbroken blood vessel
  90. Embolus
    blood clot, bubble of air, fat from broken bones, or a piece of debris transported by the bloodstream is called an embolus
  91. Embolism
    Obstruction of an artery
  92. Stroke
    Ischemic: stroke caused by an interruption in the flow of blood to the brain
  93. Hemorrhagic:
    stroke caused by a blood vessel in the brain rupturing
  94. Disorders of hemostasis
    Anything that causes unnecessary clotting or not clotting when necessary
  95. Thrombocytopenia
    Deficiency of platelets
  96. Hemophilia
    Inherited disorder that means a patient has little or no clotting factor
  97. Transfusions ofblood
  98. 1 Whole
    blood (Red blood cells)
  99. 2
  100. Human ABO
    Blood Groups
  101. Based on
    two antigens called A and B
  102. Draw a table showing what blood can be received by each of the 4 major blood groups
    Sheet 2
  103. Antigen
    A substance that can provoke a immune response and interact with antibodies
  104. Antibody
    protein produced by a plasma cell that responds to a specific antigen which it combines with and destroys, inhibits, or neutralizes it
  105. Agglutination
    In a incompatibe blood transfusion it is when the antibodies in the recipients blood bind to antigens in the donated blood causing clumping
  106. Rh blood groups
    Antigen that was discovered in the blood of rhesus monkeys those that have it are positive those that don’t are negative
  107. Transfusion reaction
    reaction of the body to incompatible blood which can lead to fever and hives all the way to renal failure and death
  108. Blood typing
    Blood is mixed with anti a serum and anti b if the anti a blood clots the type is a if the anti b blood clots the type is b if both clot its ab and if neither do its o there is a similar procedure for rh positive/negative
  109. Universal Donor Blood type?
  110. Universal Recipient blood type?
  111. Plasma expanders
    a blood substitute that is used to mimic and do some of the functiond of real blood. The point is to provide an alternative to blood transfusions
  112. Differential White Blood cell Count
    A count of each of the five types of WBCs in order to detect infection, inflamation, determine effects of poisoning by drugs or chemicals, monitor blood disorders effects of chemotherapy, or detect allergic reactions, and parasitic infections.
  113. CBC
    test that screens for anemia and infections. Usually included are the number of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets. The amount of hemoglobin is also measured.