TTK chapter 18

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  1. Circulation Pathway of Blood
    Exits Heart via (Artery) Branches until they become (capillary beds) As blood leaves capillary beds, it flows into (veins), which takes it back to the (heart)
  2. Components of blood
    • 1 Plasma
    • 2 Formed elements(Red blood cells, White blood cells, and platelets)
  3. Buffy coat
    Thin layer of white blood cells and platelets that forms a layer between plasma and red blood cells
  4. Hematocrit
    • Normal Values:
    • Males:
    • 40-54%
    • Females
    • 38-46%
  5. What are these characteristics of blood?
    • Color: high oxygen means it is bright red low oxygen makes it dark red
    • Taste:coppery
    • Density:denser than water (1025 kg/m3
    • Viscosity: thicker than water
    • pH range: (Slightly basic) 7.35-7.45
    • Temperature: 38 degrees celcius
    • Average adult volume:
    •      Males: 5-6 liters
    •      Females: 4-5 liters
  6. Functions of blood
    • 1 Transportation
    • 2 Regulation
    • 3 protection
  7. Distributive functions include
    • 1 oxygen from lungs to cells and carbon dioxide from cells to lungs
    • 2 carries nutrients from gi tract to body cells
    • 3 hormones from endocrine glands to body cells
  8. Regulatory functions include
    1 Maintaining homeostasis

    2 regulates pH through buffers

    3 helps adjust body temperature
  9. Protective functions include
    1 Clots in response to injury

    2 White blood cells protect from disease
  10. Blood Plasma
    liquid that contains dissolved substances, and formed elements (protein)
  11. Albumin
    Most plentiful plasma protein, help maintain proper blood osmotic pressure
  12. Formed elements
  13. 1  Red blood cells
    • 2 White
    • blood cells protect from disease
    • 3
    • Platelets
  14. Erythrocytes
    Structure: biconcave, lack a nucleus or other organelles, can neither reproduce or caryy on extensive metabolic activity
  15. Hemoglobin
    oxygen carrying protein that gives red blood cells their color
  16. Oxyhemoglobin
    Hemoglobin combined with oxygen
  17. Deoxyhemoglobin
    hemoglobin without oxygen
  18. Carbaminohemoglobin
    compound of hemoglobinand carbon dioxide
  19. Hematopoiesis
    process by which the fored elements of blood are formed
  20. Hemocytoblast
    stem cells that give rise to all the other blood cells
  21. Erythropoiesis
    production of red blood cells
  22. Myeloid stem cell
    begin and complete development in red bone marrow, creates red blood cells, platelets, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and monocytes
  23. Proerythroblast
    first stage of creating a red blood cell
  24. Reticulocytes
    cell near the end of the sequence of creating a red blood cell that has ejected its nucleus
  25. Erythropoietin (EPO)
    hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells
  26. EPO formation can be triggered by
  27. Hypoxia

    • Circulation
    • problems
  28. Role of testosterone in EPO production
    Stimulates production of EPO
  29. Iron's importance to hemoglobin
    It can bind to oxygen making it so hemoglobin can carry more
  30. Where does oxygen bind to the hemoglobin
    The heme ring
  31. How many oxygen molecules can hemoglobin bind with
  32. Bilirubin
    yellow orange pigment that occurs after iron is removed from heme and is turned into bile
  33. Where is the red-blood cell graveyard?
    The spleen
  34. Anemias are defined as (a lower than normal number of RBC's) and can be caused by
    • lack of iron
    • lack of vitamin B12
    • certain amino acids
  35. Hemorrhagic anemia
    Anemia caused by excessive bleeding
  36. Hemolytic anemia
    anemia caused by destructoin of erythrocytes
  37. Hemolytic anemia
    deficiency of all blood cells due to bone marrow not developing
  38. Hemolytic anemia
    anemia caused by a lack of iron
  39. Hemolytic anemia
    anemia caused by a lack of vitamin b12
  40. Hemolytic anemia
    inherited form of anemia caused by faulty synthesis of hemoglobin
  41. Hemolytic anemia
    inherited form of anemia in which a mutated hemoglobin changes the red blood cell into a sickle chape at low oxygen levels
  42. Hemolytic anemia
  43. abnormally
    high red blood cell count

    • the use
    • of EPO by athletes

    • White
    • Blood Cells





  44. Agranulocytes
  45. 1

    • 2
    • Monocyte
  46. Neutrophils
    Granules are smaller evenly distributed and pale lilac in color. Nucleus has 2 to 5 lobes connected by thin strands of nuclear material. They are called neutrophils because they don't attract the acidic (red) or basic (blue) stains
  47. Basophils
    Granules are round and vary in size they stain a blue purple (basic) with basic dyes. Granules often obscure the nucleus which has two lobes.
  48. Eosinophils
    Granules are large and uniform in size that stain a red-orange (acidic) with acid dyes. Granules don't usually cover the nucleus which often as two or three lobes connected by a thin or thick strand of nuclear material
  49. Monocytes
    Nucleus is often kidney or horseshoe shaped cytoplasm is often blue-gray and has a foamy appearance this color is due to very fine azurophilic granules. Blood is merely the conduit monocytes use to get into the tissues where they enlarge and differentiate into macrophages. Fixed macrophages stay in a particular tissue others are wandering macrophages which gather at sites of infection or inflammation,
  50. Lymphocytes
    The nucleus is often round or slightly indented. The cytoplasm will stain a sjy blue and form a ring around the nucleus as the cell increases in size the more of the cytoplasm becomes visible. Larger lymphocytes are useful in figuring out if something is an acute viral infection or in some immunodefficiency diseases.
  51. Leukopoiesis
    The process of creating white blood cells
  52. Lymphoid stem cells
    Begin development in red bone maroow but complete it in lymphatic tissue. They give rise to lymphocytes and natural killer cells
  53. Myeloblasts
    Precursor to leukocytes that only occurs in bone marrow
  54. Promyelocytes
    granulocyte precursor that develops from the myeloblast and develops into the myelocyte
  55. Promyelocytes
    granulocyte precursor that develops from the myeloblast and develops into the myelocyte
  56. Myelocytes
    mmature leukocyte usually found in the bone marrow
  57. Promonocytes
    cell that arises from a monoblast and develops into a monocyte
  58. Prolymphocytes
    immediate precursor of a lymphocyte that is derived from a lymphoblast
  59. Leukopenia
    an abnormally low level of white blood cells caused by shock, rediation, and certain chemotherapy agents.
  60. Leukemias
    malignant disease of the blood forming tissue chracterized by either a uncontrolled production and accumulation of immature leukocytes that fail to reach maturiy. Or of mature leukocytes that fail to die at the end of their normal life spans
  61. Infectious mononecleosis
    infectious viral disease characterized by a swelling of the lymph glands and prolonged fatigue
  62. Platelets
    Fragment of a megakaryocyte that aids in clotting
  63. Megakaryocytes
    Large cell that splinters into 2000-3000 fragments tat are known as platelets
  64. Thrombopoietin
    Hormone that causes myeloid stem cells to turn into megakaryoblasts which in turn transform into megakaryocytes
  65. Hemostasis
    Sequence of responses that stops bleeding when blood vessels are injured (vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting)
  66. Vascular Spasm
    When the smooth muscle of ateries or arterioles contract thus reducing blood loss
  67. Platelet Plug Formations
    When platelets come into contact with a damaged blood vessel they come together to form a plug. (1) Initially platelets will contact and stick to parts of a damaged blood vessel (2) Due to adhesion the platelets characteristics will change they will extend projections allowing them to communicate and release the contents of their vesicles, the released chemicals will activate nearby platelets and sustain the vascular spasm thus further reducing blood loss (3) The release of chemicals makes other platelets in the area sticky and this stickiness causes the platelets to stick together thus creating the platelet plug.
  68. Coagulation
    Phase 1 Two pathways the extrinsic and intrinsic  lead to the formation of prothrombinase.

    Phase 2 Prothrombinase converts prothrombin into the enzyme thrombin

    Phase 3 Thrombin converts conerts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin which forms the threads of the blood clot.
  69. Clot Retraction and Repair
    Tightening of the fibrin clot platelets trapped around the fibrin threads retract thus tightening the clot. Because the platelets are connected to the damaged vessel it pulls the vessel walls closer together decreasing risk of further damage allowing for permanent repair to take place. Fibroblasts will form connective tissue and new endothelia cells will repair the blood vessel lining.
  70. Fibrinolysis How does TPA play a role
    It is an inactive enzyme that is activated into plasmin by substances in the body tissue and blood once plasmin is formed it can dissolve the clot
  71. Factors limiting clot growth
  72. 1 Clot
    formation is usually localized 

    • 2
    • anticoagulant are present in the blood and prevent or suppress clotting
  73. Thromboembolytic disorders
  74. Clotting
    that obstructs an artery
  75. Thrombus
  76. Clot
    inside an unbroken blood vessel
  77. Embolus
    blood clot, bubble of air, fat from broken bones, or a piece of debris transported by the bloodstream is called an embolus
  78. Embolism
    Obstruction of an artery
  79. Stroke
    Ischemic: stroke caused by an interruption in the flow of blood to the brain
  80. Hemorrhagic:
    stroke caused by a blood vessel in the brain rupturing
  81. Disorders of hemostasis
    Anything that causes unnecessary clotting or not clotting when necessary
  82. Thrombocytopenia
    Deficiency of platelets
  83. Hemophilia
    Inherited disorder that means a patient has little or no clotting factor
  84. Transfusions ofblood
  85. 1 Whole
    blood (Red blood cells)

    • 2
    • components(Plasma)
  86. Human ABO
    Blood Groups
  87. Based on
    two antigens called A and B
  88. Draw a table showing what blood can be received by each of the 4 major blood groups
    Sheet 2
  89. Antigen
    A substance that can provoke a immune response and interact with antibodies
  90. Antibody
    protein produced by a plasma cell that responds to a specific antigen which it combines with and destroys, inhibits, or neutralizes it
  91. Agglutination
    In a incompatibe blood transfusion it is when the antibodies in the recipients blood bind to antigens in the donated blood causing clumping
  92. Rh blood groups
    Antigen that was discovered in the blood of rhesus monkeys those that have it are positive those that don’t are negative
  93. Transfusion reaction
    reaction of the body to incompatible blood which can lead to fever and hives all the way to renal failure and death
  94. Blood typing
    Blood is mixed with anti a serum and anti b if the anti a blood clots the type is a if the anti b blood clots the type is b if both clot its ab and if neither do its o there is a similar procedure for rh positive/negative
  95. Universal Donor Blood type?
  96. Universal Recipient blood type?
  97. Plasma expanders
    a blood substitute that is used to mimic and do some of the functiond of real blood. The point is to provide an alternative to blood transfusions
  98. Differential White Blood cell Count
    A count of each of the five types of WBCs in order to detect infection, inflamation, determine effects of poisoning by drugs or chemicals, monitor blood disorders effects of chemotherapy, or detect allergic reactions, and parasitic infections.
  99. CBC
    test that screens for anemia and infections. Usually included are the number of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets. The amount of hemoglobin is also measured.
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TTK chapter 18
2014-02-24 02:35:12
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