science chapter 1 study guide.txt

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science chapter 1 study guide.txt
2014-02-24 10:41:37
chemical interactions
Chemical interactions, science chapter 1
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  1. Matter
    Anything that has mass and takes up space.
  2. Elements
    The simplest pure substances; they cannot be broken down into any other substance.
  3. Atoms
    The building blocks of all matter.
  4. Density
    Mass per unit of volume, or mass divided by volume.
  5. What is the density of water?
    1.0 g/cm^3
  6. What is the density of lead?
    11.3 g/cm^3
  7. What is the density of mercury?
    13.5 g/cm^3
  8. What is the density of gold?
    19.3 g/cm^3
  9. What is the density of air?
    0.0013 g/cm^3
  10. What is the density of wood (oak)?
    0.85 g/cm^3
  11. A pure substance made of two or more elements that are combined chemically.
    A compound
  12. What is the chemical formula for table salt?
  13. Two or more substances - elements, compounds, or both - that are in the same place but are not chemically combined.
    A mixture
  14. Around the year 430 B.C., a Greek philosopher named ______ proposed the idea that matter is formed of small pieces that could not be cut into smaller pieces.
  15. Stainless steel is a mixture of what two things?
    Iron and chromium
  16. The smallest part of an element that is still the element (has all the characteristics of the element).
  17. In 1803, what English chemist proposed his atomic theory?
    John Dalton
  18. Who discovered the electron?
    JJ Thomson
  19. Who discovered the nucleus and protons?
    Ernest Rutherford
  20. Who is known as the father of the periodic table?
    Dmitri Mendeleev
  21. Who discovered the elements polonium and radium?
    Marie Curie
  22. What kind of charge to electrons have?
  23. How is the nucleus of an atom charged?
  24. How are protons charged?
  25. A Danish person is from what country?
  26. In 1913, what Danish scientist said that electrons orbit the nucleus in definite orbits like the planets orbit the sun?
    Niels Bohr
  27. Who discovered the neutron?
    James Chadwick
  28. What two subatomic particles are found in the nucleus?
    Protons and neutrons
  29. What does amu stand for?
    Atomic mass unit
  30. What is the exact mass of an electron?
    0.0006 amu
  31. What is the exact mass of a proton?
    1.0073 amu
  32. What is the exact mass of a neutron?
    1.0087 amu
  33. All atoms of the same element have the same number of what subatomic particle?
  34. Most of an atom's mass is found where?
    In the nucleus.
  35. The majority of an atom's volume is made up of what?
    Empty space
  36. The electrons that have the highest energy level and are held most loosely are called what?
    Valence electrons
  37. Atoms usually react in a way that makes each atom more ______.
  38. A(n) _________ is the force of attraction that holds two atoms together.
    Chemical bond
  39. The _______ is a system used worldwide for organizing elements into categories.
    Periodic table
  40. A(n) _________ is a short-hand way of representing an element. It usually consists of one or two letters.
    Chemical symbol
  41. A(n) ________ is a short-hand way of representing a compound.
    Chemical formula
  42. The ________ of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
    Atomic number
  43. A row of elements across the periodic table is called a(n) ________.
  44. Elements in the same group or column are called a ________ or ________.
    Group or family
  45. How many periods are on the periodic table?
  46. How many groups are on the periodic table?
  47. Elements within the same group always have the same number of ________.
    Valence electrons
  48. The elements in group 18 are known as the ________.
    Noble gases
  49. The elements in group 17 are known as the ________.
  50. The elements in group 1 are known as the ________.
    Alkali metals
  51. The elements in group 2 are known as the ________.
    Alkaline metals
  52. What is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature?
  53. A(n) ________ is an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge.
  54. Ions that are made of more than one atom are called ________.
    Polyatomic ions.
  55. What is the chemical formula for calcium carbonate?
  56. What is the melting point of table salt?
    801* Celsius
  57. What kind of melting points do ionic compounds have?
  58. A(n) ________ is the bond formed when two atoms share electrons.
    Covalent bond
  59. A(n) ________ is a neutral group of atoms joined by covalent bonds.
  60. A covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally is called a(n) ________.
    Polar bond
  61. A(n) ________ is a material made of two or more elements that has the properties of a metal.
  62. List the three types of chemical bonds.
    Ionic, covalent, metallic
  63. Metals conduct what two things well?
    Heat and electricity
  64. Metals are ________, which means that they can be bent easily and pulled into thin strands or wires.
  65. Metals are ________, which means that they can be rolled or hammered into thin sheets.
  66. Polished metals exhibit ________, that is, they are shiny and reflective.
  67. The Lanthanides and Actinides at the bottom of the periodic table together are known as what?
    Rare Earth elements
  68. What is the formula for converting Celsius to Fahrenheit?
    F= 1.8(*C)+32
  69. What is the formula for converting Fahrenheit to Celsius?
  70. An element's ________ is the number of electrons that it loses, gains or shares when it forms bonds.
  71. What is the valence of all noble gases?
  72. An atom is unstable when its outer energy level is ________.
  73. Each dot in an electron dot diagram represents one what?
    Valence electron
  74. List the four sub-orbitals (or sub-energy levels) and the maximum number of electrons that each can hold.
    s-2, p-6, d-10, f-14
  75. On the periodic table of the elements, ________ of the first ________ elements are naturally occurring (made by nature).
    90 of the first 92
  76. On the periodic table, elements 93 and up are all ________.
    Man made
  77. The ________ of an atom is the sum of its protons and neutrons.
    Mass number
  78. ________ are elements with properties of metals and nonmetals.
  79. The region surrounding the nucleus (inside of an atom) is called what?
    The electron cloud
  80. The elements in groups 3 through 12 on the periodic table are known as what?
    Transition metals
  81. What non-metal is a liquid at room temperature?
  82. What is the only non-metal on the left side of the periodic table?
  83. A(n) ________ is the attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
    Ionic bond
  84. How is an ionic compound named?
    For an ionic compound, the name of the positive ion comes first, followed by the name of the negative ion. If the negative ion is a single element, the end of its name changes to -ide.
  85. What kind of charge do neutrons have?
    No charge
  86. All of the elements in group 1 have a valence of what?
  87. What element borders the zig zag line (staircase) but is a metal?
  88. List three metalloids.
    Boron, Silicon, Germanium, Arsenic, Antimony, Tellurium, Polonium, Astatine
  89. A(n) ________ tells you the ratio of elements in a compound. It is the small number placed after and below a chemical symbol.
  90. What is the chemical symbol for magnesium chloride?
  91. The compound NH4NO3, named ________, is a common fertilizer for gardens and crop plants.
    Ammonium nitrate
  92. A(n) ________ is the flow of charged particles.
    Electric current
  93. A covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally is called a(n) ________.
    Nonpolar bond