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Hunters and gatherers who occupied the resources rich region of present-day California. The availability of resources in the region made it most densely settle and culturally diverse region of ancient North America. There was a vast variety in settlements, about 500 separate tribes speaking some 90 languages. No other region exhibited such cultural diversity. The Chumash was one of the cultures that emerged in the region, in what is now Santa Barbara in 500 BP. Plenty of food resources especially acorns permitted the Chumash people to establish relatively permanent settlements.
an Empire that stretched from coast to coast across central Mexico encompassing between 8 - 25 million people. Europeans often called then Aztecs, term that Mexica did not use. The Mexica began their rise to prominence about 1325. Their culture was characterized by steep hierarchy and devotion to the war god Huitzilopochtli. This empire exemplified the central values of Mexican society, and perhaps the most powerful empire that Europeans encounter in what is now Mexico and Central America.
The transatlantic exchange of goods, people, ideas & diseases that began when Columbus arrived in the Caribbean, ending the separation of the hemispheres. Spaniards brought novelties to the New World that were common in Europe, including Christianity, iron, firearms, horses and other domestic animals. They also carried many Old World microorganism that caused devastating epidemics of smallpox, measles, which wipe the majority of the Indians during 16th century. Ancient America goods, people and ideas made the return trip across the Atlantic. New World foods such as corn and potatoes became important in Europeans diets. Columbus sailors became infected with syphilis and carried the deadly bacteria to Europe. The diseases make the Colombian Exchange catastrophic for the Natives. Also the tobacco from New World created a European fashion for smoking that has yet to be extinguish.
Term, literally meaning “conqueror” that refers to the Spanish explorers and soldiers who conquered lands in the New World in the name of Spain royalty. Conquistadors got resources from the land conquered and send them to Spain, in return Spain grant them the power over the land & natives living there through encomienda, and later restricting labor to 44 days thru repartimiento. Some of the conquistadors were Herman Cortes who in 1521 invaded and conquered Mexica with the help of thousands of Indians allies. Francisco Pissarro who conquered the Inca Empire in Peru in 1532 with his army with less than 200 men. The Incas gave Pissarro the largest treasure yet produce by the conquest: gold and silver equivalent to half a century worth of precious metals production in Europe.
The first permanent English settlement in North America, establish in May 13, 1607 by colonist sponsored by the Virginia Company. Jamestown was built in the middle of a Native American Settlement. The first ships anchored in the Chesapeake Bay carrying 105 passenger, sons of Nobel families who didn’t inherent land nor title, some poor farmers and even some convicts. Only about 50 of them survived the first two years. 20 years later 4,000 settlers in America, they didn’t find gold but they found treasure in the form of tobacco. Tobacco provided economy base for the prosperity of the colony. America was founded on tobacco, for the next century and half it becomes the largest exporter of tobacco. The difficulties that English man and Indian encounter provoked an assault from the Indians in March 22, 1622, this event led the colony go from a Private Company to a Royal Colony.
About 80% of immigrants to Chesapeake during 17th century came as indenture servants.; poor immigrants who made their way to the colonies by signing contracts known as indentures, in which they committed to four to seven years of labor in North America in Exchange for transportation from England, as well as food and shelter after they arrived in the colony. Only 30% to 50% of the indenture servants survived their indenture time. After finishing their indentured they got land and some money to help them settle. Most of the indenture servant work in tobacco plantation, which were a labor intensive industry.
Dissenters from the Church of England who wanted a genuine Reformation rather than the partial Reformation sought by Henry VIII during the 16th century. The Puritan’s ideas and religious principles emphasized the importance of an individual’s relationship with God developed thought Bible study, prayer, and self-examination. Even there were many degrees of Puritanism, all Puritans shared a desire to make the English church thoroughly Protestant. Protestantism derived from Calvinism, they believed in predestination; the idea that God, before the creation of the world, decided which human souls would receive eternal life. Only God knew the identity of those individuals “elects” or “saints”, nothing a person did in this life could alter God choices. Try to bring public life into conformity with their view of God law. They punish those who break the Sabbath. Most of the Puritans that came to America were family most of them have an education and they were very prosperous. They were all required to attend church and town meetings, even women didn’t have say on decisions.
A dissenting Puritan minister whose disagreements with New England’s regulation of religious life and policies toward Indian led to his expulsion from the colony due to his “extreme and dangerous opinions”. During his banishment, he founded the colony of Rhode Island in 1636, which promote the policy of religion tolerance as fundamental idea and became a refuge for other dissenters.
Members of the Society of Friends. They establish I Pennsylvania and practice fair treatment toward natives and religious tolerance. Between 1682 and 1685 nearly 8,000 immigrants arrived most of them from England, Ireland and Wales. Their believe that God spoke directly to each individual through and “inner light” and that neither ministers nor the Bible were essential to discovering God’s Word put them in conflict with orthodox Puritans. They believed that God speaks to everyone females and males so women could take in leadership positions. Their first principle of government was the every settle enjoy the free possession of his or her faith and exercise of worship towards God.
Trade in the eighteenth century between North American colonies and the West Indies and Britain, Continental Europe, and Africa. The Atlantic Commerce was dominated by merchants and benefited the entire New England economy, providing jobs for laborers as well as for ship captains, and sailors. Europe got items such as fish, fur, tobacco, rice, lumber, rum and indigo from the colonies, sugar and molasses from the West Indies, in exchange for manufactured goods from Europe. Manufactured goods from Europe and rum from the colonies also went to Africa, where they were exchange for slaves who then were sent to the West Indies and North America colonies to cultivate crops and grow livestock to then send to Europe. Atlantic commerce represents a growing global economic exchange that would help shape the relationship between colonists and Britain. The prosperity that Atlantic commerce produced in the colonies would further help define a distinct and unifying North American identity.
The crossing of the Atlantic by slaves’ ships traveling from West Africa to the Americas. Ships were packed with 200 to 30 slaves together in extremely unhealthful circumstances. The mortality rate for slaves during such voyage was 15 percent on average, but sometimes 50 percent or more died. Once they reach America they were sold to colonial slave merchants or southern planters. Between 1619 and 1780 almost 300,000 Africans were brought to America, of these 95% arrived in the south and 96% during the 18th century.
Spanish forts built to block Russia advance into California. In 1769 Gaspar de Portola a military and Junípero Serra a priest traveled to present day San Diego and founded the first California mission, San Diego de Alcalá. In 1770 they establish a presidio in Monterrey. The same year Serra founded mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo to convert Indians and recruit them to work in supporting Spanish soldiers and other presidios.
Why did the vast majority of European immigrants to the Chesapeake come as indentured servants?
In the 17th century about 80% of the immigrants to the Chesapeake were indenture servants, poor English people who sold their freedom for a passage to North America in search of opportunities. The indentures servants did not have jobs in Europe and from what they have heard they believe they have a better chance for prosperity in the New World. Their indenture periods lasted anywhere from 4 to 7 years, and for the most part they didn’t have a say in where they landed at. By 1700, nearly 100,000 colonists lived in the Chesapeake region, they exported more than 35 million pounds of tobacco. Settlers lived by the rhythm of tobacco agriculture, and their endless need for laborers attracted attention of English indenture servants to work in the tobacco fields.
What cultural similarities were shaped by the diverse peoples of the Western hemisphere in the 1490s, and why?
- Trading was common, all Natives in the 1490’s depended in hunting and gathering for a major portion of their food. Most of them also practice agriculture. Some used agriculture to supplement hunting and gathering; others the balance were reversed. People through North America used bows, arrows and other weapons for hunting and warfare. None of them employed writing, expressing themselves instead in many other ways: drawings sketched on stones, wood, and animal skins; patterns woven in baskets and textiles; designs painted on pottery; and
- songs, dances, religious ceremonies, and burial rites. The rich and varied cultural resources of native North Americans did not include features of life common in Europe. However, the absence of these European conveniences didn’t matter to native North Americans. The great similarity — adaptation to natural and social environments — underlay all the cultural diversity among native North Americans. In general, fear and anxiety must have been at least as common among native North Americans as feelings of peace and security.
Native North Americans not only adapted to the natural environment but also changed it in many ways. They built thousands of structures, from small dwellings to massive pueblos and enormous mounds, permanently altering the landscape. Their gathering techniques selected productive and nutritious varieties of plants, thereby shifting the balance of local plants toward useful varieties. To clear land for planting corn, native North Americans set fires that burned off thousands of acres of forest.
- Native North Americans also used fires for hunting. Great Plains hunters started fires to force buffalo together and make them easy to slaughter. Eastern Woodland, Southwest, and Pacific coast Indians also set fires to hunt deer and other valuable prey. The fires set by
- native North Americans usually burned until they ran out of fuel or were extinguished by rain or wind, enormous regions of North America were burned over. Fires created and maintained land for hunting and agriculture, cleared entangling brushes from forests, and promoted a diverse and productive natural environment. Fires, like other activities of native North Americans, shaped the landscape of North America long before Europeans arrived in 1492.