Chmy 123 Exam 2
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Chmy 123 Exam 2
organic bio chem
Chmy 123 exam 2
What are the relative electronegativity values for C, H, O, and N
H - 2.1
C - 2.5
N - 3.0
O - 3.5
How can you tell if a covalent bond is not polar
s are shared equally or almost
there is a difference of < 0.5
How can you tell if a covalent bond is polar
there is a difference that is > 0.5 change in en.
What are the valence electrons for H, C, N, O, F?
What is a proton donor?
What is a proton acceptor?
What is a conjugate acid?
protonated form = form with the proton (H
What is a conjugate base?
Deprotonated form = Form without the proton
What is electronegativity
It is the tenancy of an atom to pull electrons towards itself.
Electrons go to atom with higher (en)
What is more polar
Carbon Dioxide or methanal? Why?
Carbon dioxide because its geometry cancels out the polarity.
Van der Waals
Dipole - Dipole
1) carboxylic Acid
has both polar parts and non-polar parts
What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics?
When a system containing a large amount of particles is lefts to itself, (
not adding or removing energy or mass
) it achieves maximum entropy (disorder/randomness)
What happens when amphipathic molecules are placed in water?
It is driven by the 2nd law of thermodynamics
polar parts make H-bonds with water and non-polar parts try to minimize contact
can make a monolayer, bilayer, micells, or liposomes
What is meant by Bronsted-Lowery?
They came up with the acid and base
bronsted-Lowry base = Proton acceptor
Bronsted - Lowry acid = proton donor
When water participates in an acid-base reaction
it can either donate or accept a H+, depending on what it is reacting with.
nomenclature for # of carbons
pKa of carboxylic acid
How to draw and name tryglecerides
#Cs: #C=C c or t Δ location of C=Cs
en <.5 nonpolar
endergonic and exergonic
endergonic = requires energy
exergonic = energy released