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What are the relative electronegativity values for C, H, O, and N
- H - 2.1
- C - 2.5
- N - 3.0
- O - 3.5
How can you tell if a covalent bond is not polar
- e- s are shared equally or almost
- there is a difference of < 0.5
How can you tell if a covalent bond is polar
there is a difference that is > 0.5 change in en.
What are the valence electrons for H, C, N, O, F?
What is a proton donor?
What is a proton acceptor?
What is a conjugate acid?
protonated form = form with the proton (H+)
What is a conjugate base?
Deprotonated form = Form without the proton
What is electronegativity
- It is the tenancy of an atom to pull electrons towards itself.
- Electrons go to atom with higher (en)
What is more polar
Carbon Dioxide or methanal? Why?
Carbon dioxide because its geometry cancels out the polarity.
Van der Waals
- non-polar groups
- 1) carboxylic Acid
- 2) 1o amines3) 2o amines
- 3) Alchohols
- water hating
- non-polar groups
has both polar parts and non-polar parts
What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics?
When a system containing a large amount of particles is lefts to itself, (not adding or removing energy or mass) it achieves maximum entropy (disorder/randomness)
What happens when amphipathic molecules are placed in water?
- It is driven by the 2nd law of thermodynamics
- polar parts make H-bonds with water and non-polar parts try to minimize contact
- can make a monolayer, bilayer, micells, or liposomes
What is meant by Bronsted-Lowery?
- They came up with the acid and base
- bronsted-Lowry base = Proton acceptor
- Bronsted - Lowry acid = proton donor
When water participates in an acid-base reaction
it can either donate or accept a H+, depending on what it is reacting with.
nomenclature for # of carbons
pKa of carboxylic acid
How to draw and name tryglecerides
#Cs: #C=C c or t Δ location of C=Cs
- en <.5 nonpolar
- en>.5 polar
endergonic and exergonic
- endergonic = requires energy
- exergonic = energy released