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Divide the metabolic processes of glucose into aerobic and anaerobic processes.
- Aerobic: citric acid cycle
- Anaerobic: glycolysis, gluconeogenesis
The metabolism is glucose specific. What happens in the liver?
- Primary function is maintaining stable blood glucose levels to "feed" other tissues
- stores glucose in glycogen when supply is high and releases as needed
The metabolism is glucose specific. What happens in the muscle?
- converts chemical energy into mechanical energy
- mostly, a catabolic tissue - burns glucose (and fats) for energy
- limited anabolic potential - can store glucose in glycogen
The metabolism is glucose specific. What happens in the brain?
- glucose dependent organ
- prime O2 consuming organ - uses 20% of entire body's oxygen
- burns glucose almost exclusively to make ATP for Na+-K+ ATPase (nerve conduction)
The metabolism is glucose specific. What happens in adipose?
- storage depot - recieves triglycerides (fat) from liver & gut to store as fuel reserve
- supports liver metabolism by supplying glycerol to make into glucose
Glucose must be transported into cells via transport proteins.
What is the family we learned about?
Name 4 of them and where they act.
- Family = GLUT 1-5, 7
- GLUT1 - red blood cells
- GLUT2 - liver and pancrease B-cells
- GLUT4 - muscle & adipose, insulin sensitive
- GLUT5 - intestinal cells, glucose to gloodstream
Glucose uptake is under control.
- High glucose levels facilitate glucose entry into liver and pancreas.
- muscle and adipose can only transport in glucose when given the insulin signal.
Glycolysis generates energy by catabolism of glucose
- anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate
- occurs in cytoplasm
- fills short term energy needs
glycolysis is anaerobic
- to obtain free energy from glycolysis without the presence of oxygen, glycolysis occurs in two parts
- 1) activate glucose by phosphorylations
- 2)collect energy from high level intermediates
stage 1 of glycolysis is called the preparatory phase
- energy is invested to produce activated sugars
- fructose-1,6-bisphosphate split into two 3-carbon units
stage 2 of glycolysis is the payoff phase
ATP produced by oxidation of 3-carbon sugars
Net reaction of glycolysis
1 glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+
--> 2pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2H+
- makes 4 atp
- uses 2 atp
- net gain of 2 atp