BIOCHEM EXAM 3 Lecture 12

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BIOCHEM EXAM 3 Lecture 12
2014-02-24 12:04:40

exam 3 content
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  1. Divide the metabolic processes of glucose into aerobic and anaerobic processes.
    • Aerobic: citric acid cycle
    • Anaerobic: glycolysis, gluconeogenesis
  2. The metabolism is glucose specific. What happens in the liver?
    • Primary function is maintaining stable blood glucose levels to "feed" other tissues
    • stores glucose in glycogen when supply is high and releases as needed
  3. The metabolism is glucose specific. What happens in the muscle?
    • converts chemical energy into mechanical energy
    • mostly, a catabolic tissue - burns glucose (and fats) for energy
    • limited anabolic potential - can store glucose in glycogen
  4. The metabolism is glucose specific. What happens in the brain?
    • glucose dependent organ
    • prime O2 consuming organ - uses 20% of entire body's oxygen
    • burns glucose almost exclusively to make ATP for Na+-K+ ATPase (nerve conduction)
  5. The metabolism is glucose specific. What happens in adipose?
    • storage depot - recieves triglycerides (fat) from liver & gut to store as fuel reserve
    • supports liver metabolism by supplying glycerol to make into glucose
  6. Glucose must be transported into cells via transport proteins.
    What is the family we learned about?
    Name 4 of them and where they act.
    • Family = GLUT 1-5, 7
    • GLUT1 - red blood cells
    • GLUT2 - liver and pancrease B-cells
    • GLUT4 - muscle & adipose, insulin sensitive
    • GLUT5 - intestinal cells, glucose to gloodstream
  7. Glucose uptake is under control.
    • High glucose levels facilitate glucose entry into liver and pancreas.
    • muscle and adipose can only transport in glucose when given the insulin signal.
  8. Glycolysis generates energy by catabolism of glucose
    • anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate
    • occurs in cytoplasm
    • fills short term energy needs
  9. glycolysis is anaerobic
    • to obtain free energy from glycolysis without the presence of oxygen, glycolysis occurs in two parts
    • 1) activate glucose by phosphorylations
    • 2)collect energy from high level intermediates
  10. stage 1 of glycolysis is called the preparatory phase
    • energy is invested to produce activated sugars
    • fructose-1,6-bisphosphate split into two 3-carbon units
  11. stage 2 of glycolysis is the payoff phase
    ATP produced by oxidation of 3-carbon sugars
  12. Net reaction of glycolysis
    1 glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ -->  2pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2H+ 2H2O

    • makes 4 atp
    • uses 2 atp
    • net gain of 2 atp