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- Scientific study of society and social actions
- How thoughts, actions, and behaviours are influenced by society and how we shape society through our actions.
Sociology of health
interaction between society and health (whether on an individual or on an institutional basis)
What is the Socio-ecological model ofhealth
From inside to outside
- Age/sex/hereditary factors
- lifestyle choices
- social and comunity networks
- education+ work+work conditions+health care+housing etc.
- General socioeconomic, cultural and environmental conditions
What is a profession?
- Prolonged specialized training in body of knowledge
- service orientation
- authority granted by society
- an ethic that is binding on the practitioners
- societal benefits derived from ideology professed by members
What is a professional?
- have the Profession's knowledge and skills
- commitmentto self-improvement ofskills and knowledge
- service orientation
- convenental relationship with client/patient
- conscience and trust worthy
"A professional is someone who demonstrates that competence,traits,and skills expected of a professional"
What is professional socialization?
Process of inculcalating a profession's attitudes values and behaviours.
What is "pharmaceutical care"?
Pharmacy's adopted paradigm
assuming responsibility for drug therapy outcome, and safe, accurate and effecient distribution of pharmaceuticals.
Thus pharmacists are involved in active care of patients
What is a convenant, or a convenental relationship?
- Stating the swearer's duties to the profession.
- -put patient's interests ahead of yourown
- -acknowledgement that health professionals are not philanthropic; they have duties as professionals
What is a fiduciary relationship?
A relationship of trust between two parties, wherin one party is in a position of vulnerability, and the other is in a position of power.
What is duty to care? What are some interesting aspects of this in relation to health care professionals?
- Professional obligation to provide care to patients.
- Most code of ethics do not explicitly state how far the duty to care stretches; thus, at what point is a pharmacist no longer compelled to provide care?
- the systematic study of moral choices; concerns the values that lie behind moral choices and the language used to describe the choices
- concerns itself with what we ought to do
Define professional ethics
Principles of proper professional conduct concerning rights and duties of the pharmacist, the patient and the pharmacist's fellow practitioners
A member of a profession, who understands professional ethics, should be able to :
- know what is expected of them
- know how to reflect upon and apply professional ethics in specific cases
- think why and how their profession's ethics should be changed
What is conscientious objection?
Refuse a service based on religious or moral principles
What is a code of ethics?What is the purpose of a profession's code of ethics?
Documents that codify the standards of conduct and values for professionals
- Used as a starting point for decision making and conduct.
- Serves as public statements about the values of the profession
How many principles are in OCP's code of ethics?
8, and a preamble
Preamble of code of ethics
- members have moral obligations to patients due to the trust given to them by society
- Members must:
- -act in best interest of patient
- -advocate for patient
- -observe the law
- -uphold dignity and honour of the profession
- -practice in accordance with ethical principles
Principle 1 of code of ethics
- Patient well being,not profit, at the centre of practice
- Patient autonomy must be respected: patient's right to self-determination when it comes to decisions about their health
Principle 2 of code of ethics
professional judgement must be in patient's best interest, at a level consistent with the member's scope of practice.
Principle 3 of code of ethics
confidentiality of patient information (only divulge if authorized by patient, law, or to protect patient or another from harm)
Principle 4 of code of ethics
- Respect for patient autonomy, individuality, and dignity
- access not denied to due to personal convictions or religious beliefs (must provide a referral)
Principle 5 of code of ethics
- 5 Acts with honesty and integrity
- 6 Commitment to improve professional competence
- 7 Collaborates with other HCP
- 8 Practice under conditions that don't compromise professional standards or impose such conditions on others
Define conflict of interest.
when a primary interest (patient well being) interferes with a secondary interest
It is considered a breach of the fiduciary relationship
What are some aspects of conflict of interest?
- Awareness: must be aware that a COI exists; must consider perception to the public/patient as well
- Disclosure: not an acknowledgement of moral failure, but a realistic assessment of the impact of secondary interests (disclosure is necessary because although integrity is necessary, it is not sufficient)
- Review andauthorization: formal review systems to assess/control COI
- Prohibition: some conflicts of interest impact fiduciary relationship so profoundly that they must be prohibited.