What is bioethics? What is clinical ethics? What is medical ethics?
bio:issues precipitated by biological issues
clinical: systematic approach to identifying, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues encountered in a clinical setting. (overlaps with professional ethics; how to make clinical decisions and your justification)
Study of ethics in the praactice of medicine
What is deontology? What is deontological ethics?
study of duty
duty-based ethics (duty-based principles take precedence over consequences [i.e. consequences irrelevant if act is morally flawed]
What are the two rules Kant outlined in his ethical philosophy?
Categorical imperative: act only according to that maxim, whereby the action should be universal law
Respect for person: people are ends in themselves, not means to an end.
What are some pros of Kantian ethics? Considerations?
Treats people as ends in themselves
Hard to resolve conflicting duties
no clear guidance about applying principles in real world
What is consequentalist theory? What is utilitarian theory?
C: Action is judged to be morally right or wrong depending on its consequences
U: One form of consequentialism; action is moral if it provides the greatest benefit to the greatest number of people.
What was the Jewish chronic disease hospital case? Under which ethical theory may this case be acceptable?
Injected live cancer cells in those who are chronically ill without telling them
Under consequentialist theory
What are some pros of consequentialist theory? Cons?
Considers all people equally
A form of reasoning that is familiar to many people
Bad acts with good consequences may be permissable
Majority overrules minority.
What are thought experiments?
they are a species of example
are clarificatory in nature, allow for teasing apart of distinct but potentially conflated principles or ideas
serve as "intuition pumps"
What are the ethical principles of pharmacy practice?
Respect for autonomy: respect for people, and patient's self-determination (informed consent, disclosure, confidentiality)
Beneficence: do good
Non-maleficence: do no harm
Justice: distribute benefits and risks fairly. (equal access, non judgmental)
Who has access to the information in a child's health record?
Health care team who require info
patient's parent/legal guardian only if they are making a surrogate decision.
What are some ethical principles apart from the four main ones?
quality of life
Why should a patient's records be kept confidential?
patient's right to privacy
maintains respect for the dignity of the patient
helps pharmacists maintain trust
encourages patients to disclose information\
helps with patient co-operation
When can you disclose a patient's information?
patient's surrogate decision maker on a need-to-know basis
if there is a significant risk of harm to patient or to someone else
Why is mandatory reporting a conflicting concept?
you have a duty to the individual-> confidentiality
you have a duty to the community-> patient well being