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6 essential nutrients?
calories for energy and are needed in large quantities
micronutrients do not provide?
calories and are required in smaller quantities
which category of nutrients provides calories?
what is a calorie?
unit of energy
identify storage and cooking techniques that minimize nutrient losses
- wash fresh produce right before cooking
- steaming and microwaving helps retain water soluble vitamins
- use airtight and opaque containers
- roasting and grilling can preserve animal foods
- refrigerate after cutting
- save cooking liquids to use in soups
common food issues that chef's must deal with?
- lactose intolerance
- low fat/heart healthy
- gluten free
- specific food allergies
what is cooking?
transfer of energy from a heat source to a food
materials effective for conducting?
- water conducts better than air
liquid and gases
effects of heat on protein? and ex
- it coagulates
- ex meat browning
effects of heat on starches? and ex?
- it gelatinizes
- ex oatmeal or a water soluble starch
effects of heat on sugars?
effects of heat on water?
effects of heat on fat?
3 main types of heat transfer?
transfer of heat via a fluid or liquid or air
- does not require contact between heat and the food being cooked
- toaster, microwave, broiler
- movement of heat from one item to another via direct contact
same food offered every day, rarely changes
static of fixed
ex of restaurant with static menu?
chain restaurant- friday's
set period of time then repeats
ex of cycle menu?
high school cafeteria
based on product availability during a specific period, seasonal
ex of market menu?
combo of 2 or more menus?
typically in 24 hr restaurants? ex?
individually priced and sold? ex?
complete meal at set price?
ex of host table?
amount of stock necessary to cover operating needs between deliveries
the total amount of product made from a specific recipe
main components of a standardized recipe?
- recipe title
- recipe category
- weight and volume
- preparation instructions
- cooking temperature
- serving size
- recipe yield
- cooking and serving equipment
why is it important to use standardized recipes?
- consistent food quality
- predictable yield
- accurate nutrient content
- food cost control
- efficient purchasing
- inventory control
- labor cost control
- employee confidence
- reduced record keeping
uses radiant heat from an overheard source to cook foods
dry heat cooking methods
moist heat cooking methods?
combination cooking methods
uses a heat source located beneath the cooking surface
the process of surrounding a food with dry, heated air in a closed environment
the food is cooked in an oven, but in a covered pot with aromatic vegetables and bacon fat or butter
uses conduction to transfer heat from a hot saute pan to food
uses convection to transfer heat from a liquid to a food
uses large amounts of rapidly boiling liquid to cook foods
____ foods benefit from the best qualities of both dry and moist heat