Anthropology Midterm

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Anthropology Midterm
2014-02-24 23:35:44
anthropology midterm
Anthropology midterm study guide
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  1. Which primate pale-genus is found in the Fayum and is probably close to the ancestry of both major groups of living Old World anthropoids?
  2. About when did the initial hominid divergence from the African hominoids most likely occur?
  3. What is a hominid's defining characteristics?
    bipedalism, culture, bigger brain
  4. What are the adaptive advantages of bipedalism?
    Thermoregulation, holding things while walking, less energy demanding
  5. Anatomical changes in hominins indicative of habitual bipedal locomotion include...
    short broad pelvis, valgus angle, longer lower limbs, restructured ear bones, foot arches, relocation of hallux (big toe)
  6. The earliest stone tools are dated to approximately...
  7. The estimated average cranial capacity for Homo Habilis is...
    630cc (~20% larger than earlier hominins)
  8. The earliest australopith fossils come from...
    Central Africa, ~6mya
  9. The hominid fossils from Laetoli and Hadar are classified by most researchers as...
  10. Recently discovered remains from the Tugen Hills, dated to about 6 million years ago have been placed in which genus?
  11. Sahelanthropus has an unusual combination of characteristics, including...
    small brain, huge brow bone, at least partially bipedal
  12. Which situations would be best suited to the carbon-14 dating technique?
    organic materials that were ones alive, 1000-50,000 years ago, compares carbon 12 and carbon 14 ratios
  13. Potassium-40 (40K) decays to...
    Argon-40, 1-5mya
  14. The current evidence indicates that hominids possessed all the major structural changes necessary for bipedalism by... (years ago)
  15. What are the contributions of Olduvai research?
    made paleoarcheologists and anthropologists to reassess their idea about early human tool use
  16. The key artifacts in the Oldowan tool tradition are:
    stone tools, manuports, flame(?) tools
  17. Radiometric dating techniques are based on what principle?
    Chronometric dating
  18. Which dating techniques relies on the regular growth of tree rings?
  19. When a disease is continuously present in a population it is said to be...
  20. Proto-hominins (pre-australopiths) lives approximately... (years ago)
  21. Could pro to-hominins (pre-australopiths) use tools?
  22. Which term refers to the process of attaching a handle to a tool?
  23. If you were digging a hominid site that contains geological layers that resulted from volcanic activity, what dating technique would you most likely use?
  24. The principle of superposition is a key component of what relative dating technique?
  25. Reconstructing human technology and material culture as a means of generating testable ideas about the past is known as:
    experimental archaeology
  26. The study of contemporary human societies as a means of understanding the past is known as:
  27. The spatial and temporal relationships between artifacts and features is known as:
  28. Which of the best defines an ecofact?
    natural materials that render environmental info about a site (pollen, faunal remains, soil type)
  29. What is the most common means of conducting a site survey?
  30. The study of the human past, primarily through material remains, is known as:
  31. Taphonomy is defined as:
    how biological and material artifacts came to be where they are
  32. What kinds of evidence of hominid behavior are most likely available for study?
  33. Why are stone tools important for reconstructing the human past?
    showed how they hunted/gathered
  34. The term 'hominin' refers to:
    a bipedal hominoid (including ancestral humans)
  35. ________ is the study of the evolution of behavior, emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection.
    behavioral ecology
  36. Ecological factors influencing primate social behavior include...
    distribution of food/water, predators, nutritional value of foods
  37. Primate groups composed of several adult males and females are advantageous in what kind of areas?
    predator defense
  38. Mounting as an expression of dominance in baboons is believed to also serve to...
    defuse potentially tense situations
  39. Amicable behaviors that promote group cohesion are called ______ behaviors.
  40. In many primate species, _______ behaviors have a central role in reinforcing social relationships
  41. Are permanent male-female bonds typical among non-human primates?
  42. The term for a mating system in which males, and some cases females, have several mating partners is...
  43. What does K-selection refer to?
    species that produce relatively few offspring but invest a large amount of parental care
  44. Species producing relatively large numbers of offspring and invest little parental care are...
  45. Infanticide by adult males can occur because...
    transfer of new male into group/encounter with unfamiliar female
  46. What is the basic primate social unit?
    female and infants
  47. Linguistic symbols are said to be ________ because they do not resemble the object or concept they represent
  48. Which non-human primates have been taught to use sign language?
  49. What do the language experiments with chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas incite?
    They have the ability to communicate using different kinds of symbols
  50. Currently, there are approximately ___ species of non-human primates.
  51. What is noteworthy about primate maturation, learning, and behavior?
    cultural behavior. maturation takes longer, learning and behavior is more complex
  52. Traditionally, primate characteristics have been explained as the result of adaptation to ______ environments
  53. Using all for limbs to support the body during locomotion is called...
  54. Vertical clinging and leaping is a locomotor pattern frequently practiced by which kinds of primates?
    tarsiers (and Indris lemur)
  55. _______ is seen in some New World monkeys, but not in any Old World monkeys.
    Prehensile tails
  56. DNA hybridization of humans and chimpanzees indicate they share about ___% of their DNA base sequences.
  57. What are the defining characteristics of tarsiers?
    huge eyes, nocturnal, vertical climber/leapers
  58. What are the most non-derived, or primitive, primates?
    lemurs and lorises
  59. Monkeys are divided into which two major groups?
    Old World and New World
  60. What are the smallest New World anthropoids?
    marmosets and tamarians
  61. What is a hominoid? Examples?
    • Primate with a larger body, no tail, shorter trunk, more complex behavior, enhanced cognitive abilities, longer gestation/maturation.
    • humans and apes (orangutans, gorillas, bonobos, chimps)
  62. Sexual dimorphism refers to...
    differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species
  63. Gibbons and siamangs are adapted for what kind of locomotion?
    brachiation (long arms, strong shoulders, permanently curved fingers, short thumbs)
  64. Mountain gorilla social groups are usually composed of...
    male silverback, several younger male "blackbacks," a number of females
  65. Chimpanzees live in groups composed of..
    50+ members
  66. What is a major underlying factor for the declining numbers of nonhuman primates?
    unpredicted human population growth/destruction of their habitats
  67. Ideally, taxonomic classification suggests what kind of relationships?
  68. Structural similarities shared by species that are acquired by descent from a common ancestor are...
  69. What is the evolutionary process that produces analogous structures called?
  70. Structural similarities shared by a wide array of distantly related species that are inherited from a remote ancestor, such as the number of bones in the forelimb, are termed...
  71. What is the term for traits that reflect specific evolutionary lineages and can be informative of evolutionary relationships?
  72. A hypothesis regarding ancestor-descendant relationships that includes a time scale is called..
    geological time scale
  73. Speciation can occur as a result of..
    geographical isolation, genetic drift, natural selection
  74. Morphological variation between individuals within a species is called...
    population genetics
  75. As discussed in the text, long-term continental drift had significant evolutionary ramifications because...
    induced volcanic activity, formed mountains, caused earthquakes
  76. What does the term endothermic refer to?
    ability to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells
  77. What are Monotremes?
    mammals that lay eggs
  78. What is the term for the rapid expansion and diversification of groups of organisms into newly available ecological niches?
    adaptive radiation
  79. What is the false belief that there is a relationship between physical traits and certain behavioral traits such as intelligence and morality?
    biological determinism
  80. What is the term for the philosophy of "race improvement" through the forced sterilization of some groups and the encouraged reproduction of others?
  81. What is a polytypic species?
    species composed of populations that differ in the expression of 1 or more traits
  82. In its most common biological usage, the term race is...
    geographically patterned phenotypic variation within a species
  83. Why are anthropologists interested in the ABO blood type system?
    it's polymorphic
  84. The frequency of the O allele (in ABO blood type) is almost 100% among which indigenous population?
    South America
  85. Lactose intolerance is characterized by...
    when the body stopes producing lactase
  86. Population geneticists use the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation to determine...
    predicted distribution of alleles in populations
  87. Biological systems are balanced systems maintained by the interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for both external and internal changes. Such a balanced system is in...
  88. Acclimatization refers to...
    short term physiological changes that mediate a shift in environmental conditions
  89. What are some examples of acclimatization?
    • Hypoxia
    • UV radiation -> tanning
    • cold -> vasoconstriction
    • heat -> vasodilation
  90. What contributes most to skin color?
    melanin produced by melanocytes
  91. Dark skin is found in populations near the equator. Why?
    Increased melanin acts as a defensive mechanism from the harmful UV radiation of the more intense sunlight
  92. What causes rickets?
    Lack of Vitamin D
  93. Mechanisms for radiating body heat include...
    sweat glands (evaporation), vasodilation
  94. What is Bergmann's rule?
    among mammals, increased mass to surface area is observed in colder climates -> greater heat retention
  95. Hypoxia is...
    increased hemoglobin production - pulmonary expansion
  96. What are disease-causing organisms such as bacteria and viruses called?
  97. The World Health Organization lists ____ as the world's leading killer of adults.
  98. What is the belief that species do not change but are the same as when first created known as?
    fixity of species
  99. By the 17th century, some scientists were beginning to break with long-held traditions and sought to investigate ______.
  100. ________ first recognized that species were groups of organisms that were distinguished from other such groups by their ability to mate with one another and produce fertile offspring.
    John Ray
  101. _______ refine the existing system of classifying biological organisms into a binomial system.
    Carolus Linnaeus
  102. Charles Darwin was not the only one to conceive the idea of natural selection. Who published an article suggesting current species were descended from other species?
    Alfred Russel Wallace
  103. Who was the first to actually attempt to explain the mechanism by which species change?
    Jean Baptiste Lamarck
  104. What is the view that the extinction and the subsequent appearance of more modern forms could be explained by a series of disasters and creations?
  105. _______ proposed that population size increases at a faster rate than food supplies.
    Thomas Malthus
  106. The fact that individuals who possess favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those who possess less favorable traits is the basis for which theory?
    natural selection/survival of the fittest
  107. "Fitness," in an evolutionary sense, refers to an individual's...
    reproductive success
  108. According to the text, which is among the reasons that about half of Americans believe that evolution does not occur?
    • "It's only a theory"
    • "There's no new species"
    • "If we evolved from monkeys, why are there still monkeys?"
  109. A person who is homozygous recessive at a locus will express what kind of genotype?
    Recessive trait
  110. What is the term used to refer to the observable, physical expression of genotypes?
  111. What is it called when a person possesses two different alleles at the same locus, and both alleles are expressed in the phenotype?
    codominance (AB blood type)
  112. How many ABO phenotypes are there?
  113. Mendelian traits are described as discrete, or discontinuous because...
    they don't have a range of phenotypes, they are determined from a single locus
  114. What types of traits are governed by more than one genetic locus?
  115. What is the only source of new genetic material in any population?
  116. What is gene flow defined as?
    exchange of genes between populations. new genes produced
  117. Genetic drift is...
    random reduction in genetic variation caused by sudden reduction in the number of individuals interbreeding within a population. some alleles disappear, others become the only gene variant
  118. Altruism is a behavior that...
    benefits another individual by at some potential risk or cost to oneself
  119. Some of the deliberate nonhuman primate behaviors that serve as communication include...
    grooming, facial expressions