PL SC 221

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Author:
ebacker
ID:
263749
Filename:
PL SC 221
Updated:
2014-02-25 20:48:46
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Plant Science
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Midterm Cards
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  1. What are the parts of the shoot?
    • Apical/terminal bud
    • Nodes
    • Axillary buds
    • Internodes
    • Floral buds
  2. What are the 4 meristems?
    • Apical
    • Axillary
    • Lateral
    • Intercalary
  3. What are the 3 types of tissues that arise from the apical meristem?
    • Protoderm
    • Ground meristem
    • Procambium
  4. What does the protoderm form?
    • Epidermis
    • Outer protective layer
    • Covers growing root/shoot
  5. What does the ground meristem form?
    • Cortex
    • Main bulk of plant
    • Prenchyma, collenchyma, schlerenchyma
  6. What does the procambium form?
    • Vascular tissue
    • Xylem/Phloem
  7. What plant hormones inhibit and promote growth of axillary buds?
    • Auxin inhibits
    • Cytokinin promotes
  8. What is the lateral meristem responsible for?
    • Secondary growth
    • Increases diameter of stems/roots of woody plants
  9. What does the intercalary meristem do?
    • Longitudinal growth of plant independent of apical meristem
    • Occurs in grasses
  10. What are the 2 classes of plants?
    • Angiosperms
    • Gymnosperms
  11. What are the 4 functions of roots?
    • Anchor plants in soil
    • Absorb water/minerals from the soil
    • Conduct water/minerals to/from shoots
    • Provide an area for storage
  12. What are the 4 regions of roots?
    • Root cap
    • Cell division
    • Cell elongation
    • Cell maturaion
  13. What are the different root tissues and what is important about each one?
    • Epidermis - Single cell layer, absorbing layer
    • Cortex - Parenchyma cells, occupy largest area, food storage
    • Endodermis - Single cell layer, surround vascular cylinder
    • Vascular cylinder - xylem & phloem
  14. What roots form a star-shaped xylem bundle?
    Dicot
  15. Where do lateral roots arise?
    Pericycle
  16. What roots have vascular bundles that form a ring around the pith?
    Monocot
  17. What advantages do fungi and bacteria provide to plants?
    • Fungi - readily absorb phosphorus
    • Bacteria - convert nitrogen to nitrates
  18. What are the 2 types of conducting cells in xylem?
    • Tracheids
    • Vessel elements
  19. What are pit pairs?
    • Regions in secondary wall where no cells were deposited
    • Can be bordered - contain torus' which close off elements with low pressure
  20. What cells are in the phloem?
    • Sieve-tube cells
    • Companion cells
  21. How does the phloem transport food?
    Source and sink
  22. What are the above ground stem modifications?
    • Stolons - Horizontal stem, vegetative reproduction, strawberry
    • Tendrils - branch, clings/coils around structures, grape vine
    • Thorns
    • Crowns
  23. What are the below ground stem modifications?
    • Rhizomes- horizontal stem, roots/shoots develop from nodes, stores food, quack grass
    • Bulbs - compressed, surrounded by scales, inside scales store food, outside scales protect, onion
    • Tubers -swollen, fleshy, storage, buds (eyes), potatoe
    • Corms - short, swollen, plant arises from axillary buds, new corms form at base, crocus
  24. What are the 2 main functions of leaves?
    • Photosynthesis - manufacture food in sunlight
    • Transpiration - maintain water balance
  25. How are leaves formed?
    • Chemical signal triggers cell division at shoot apical meristem
    • Lateral protrusions form called leaf primordium
    • Location determined by phyllotaxy
    • Continued cell division/expansion of procambium/protoderm
    • Vascular strand produced
    • Becomes midvein & epidermis
    • Meristematic cells undergo division
    • Leaf thickens to form blade and petiole
  26. What structures are a part of the external anatomy of leaves?
    • Waxy cuticle
    • Epidermis
    • Stomata
    • Guard cells
  27. How do guard cells work?
    • Open/close in response to enviro-induced pressures
    • K+ ions move out of guard cells, causes opening/closing
    • ABA inhibits proton pump causing stomata to close
  28. What structures are part of the internal anatomy of leaves?
    • Mesophyll tissue
    • Intercellular tissue
    • Vascular tissue
  29. What are the 2 mesophyll layers in dicotelydons?
    • Palisade layer - upper region, elongated vertical cells, contains >80% of chloroplasts
    • Spongy layer - lower region, irregularly shaped cells, fewer chloroplasts
  30. What part of leaf veins do xylem and phloem form on?
    • Xylem - upper
    • Phloem - lower
  31. What is the vascular strand surrounded by in leaves?
    Bundle sheath - loads sugars into phloem, unloads water from xylem
  32. What are the differences between C3 and C4 plants?
    • C4 fix twice as much carbon, have a more prominent bundle sheath, and use PEP carboxylase as well as RuBP carboxylase (Rubisco)
    • C3 only uses Rubisco
  33. How do CAM plants work?
    • Absorb/store CO2 at night when stomata are open
    • Similar to C4
    • 4-C compounds accumulate in vacuoles, diffuse out in day for calvin cycle
  34. What are some examples of leaf modifications?
    • Insect trap
    • Tendrils for support
    • Spines for protection
    • Water loss reduction (smaller, pitted stomata, rolled/folded blade)
    • Food storage
    • Water storage
    • Assexual propagation
    • Specialized flowers
  35. What are examples of leafy crops and what part do you eat?
    • Cabbage - leaves, sauerkraut/kimchee (formed when terminal meristem does not elongate & inner leaves do not expand)
    • Brussel sprouts - leaves
    • Kohlrabi - swollen stem
    • Cauliflower/broccoli - inflorescences (masses of flower buds)
    • Kale/Collards - leaves
  36. What are some examples of root crops?
    • Turnips
    • Rutabagas
  37. What are the 5 basic structures of a flower?
    • Receptacle
    • Sepals
    • Petals - attachment, symmetry
    • Stamens
    • Pistil
  38. What are the different forms or petal attachment?
    • Apetalous - no petals
    • Sympetalous - partially or completely fused
    • Choripetalous - separate petals
  39. What are the 2 forms of flower symmetry?
    • Regular
    • Irregular
  40. What is the "male house" in a flower called?
    Androecium
  41. What is the "female house" in a flower called?
    Gynoecium
  42. What subparts are included in the stamen?
    • Anther
    • Filament
  43. What subparts are included in the pistil?
    • Ovary
    • Stigma
    • Style
  44. What are complete/incomplete and perfect/imperfect flowers?
    • Complete - all foral parts (sepals, petals, stamens, carpels)
    • Incomplete - missing 1 or more of above
    • Perfect - both female (pistil) and male parts (stamen)
    • Imperfect - only female or male
  45. What are inflorescences?
    Groups of flowers on a floral axis
  46. What are the 6 different inflorescences?
    • Spike - unbranched, flowers attached to central axis
    • Raceme - unbranched, flowers attached by pedicels to central axis
    • Panicle - branched raceme
    • Umbel - flowers attach by pedicels from a common point
    • Corymb - unbranched, forms flat-top, unequal length
    • Head - peduncle, flowers attached directly to broad receptacle
  47. What are the 4 parts to angiosperm fruit/seed?
    • Ovary
    • Ovule, Integuements
    • 2 polar nuclei & sperm nucleus
    • Egg nucleus (1N) & sperm nucleus (1N)
  48. What are the 3 pericarp layers? (Ovary wall)
    • Exocarp
    • Mesocarp
    • Endocarp
  49. What are the 2 types of dry fruits?
    • Indehiscent - nonsplitting (caryopsis fruit)
    • Dehiscent - splitting
  50. What is a superior ovary?
    Ovary borne above insertion of sepals & petals
  51. What is an inferior ovary?
    Ovary below attachement of sepals, petals, etc
  52. Define primary growth and the 2 locations it occurs in.
    • Elongation of plant body due to activity of apical meristem.
    • Shoot apical meristem
    • Root apical meristem
  53. Define secondary growth and the 2 locations it occurs in
    • Increase in girth of plant body due to activity of lateral meristem
    • Vascular cambium
    • Cork cambium
  54. Where does vascular cambium originate from and what does it do?
    • Fascicular and interfascicular cambium
    • Produces 2o xylem & phloem via perclinical division (increases rows of cells)
    • Maintains own cylindrical structure via anticlinical division (adds to existing row of cells)

  55. Where does the cork cambium originate from and what does it do?
    • Parenchyma in cortex
    • Produces cork (phellem) to outside and phelloderm to inside via periclinical division
  56. What is the periderm?
    • Outer bark
    • Phellem + Phellogen + Phelloderm
  57. What are the functions of bark?
    • Protection of inner bark and vascular cambium from:
    • Predators
    • Fire
    • Intense radiation
    • Frost
    • Water loss
  58. What determines the girth of a monocot?
    • Apical meristem
    • NO secondary growth
  59. What shoot tissues do angiosperms have that gymnosperms do not?
    • Vessels
    • Fibers

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