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What are the parts of the shoot?
- Apical/terminal bud
- Axillary buds
- Floral buds
What are the 4 meristems?
What are the 3 types of tissues that arise from the apical meristem?
- Ground meristem
What does the protoderm form?
- Outer protective layer
- Covers growing root/shoot
What does the ground meristem form?
- Main bulk of plant
- Prenchyma, collenchyma, schlerenchyma
What does the procambium form?
- Vascular tissue
What plant hormones inhibit and promote growth of axillary buds?
- Auxin inhibits
- Cytokinin promotes
What is the lateral meristem responsible for?
- Secondary growth
- Increases diameter of stems/roots of woody plants
What does the intercalary meristem do?
- Longitudinal growth of plant independent of apical meristem
- Occurs in grasses
What are the 2 classes of plants?
What are the 4 functions of roots?
- Anchor plants in soil
- Absorb water/minerals from the soil
- Conduct water/minerals to/from shoots
- Provide an area for storage
What are the 4 regions of roots?
- Root cap
- Cell division
- Cell elongation
- Cell maturaion
What are the different root tissues and what is important about each one?
- Epidermis - Single cell layer, absorbing layer
- Cortex - Parenchyma cells, occupy largest area, food storage
- Endodermis - Single cell layer, surround vascular cylinder
- Vascular cylinder - xylem & phloem
What roots form a star-shaped xylem bundle?
Where do lateral roots arise?
What roots have vascular bundles that form a ring around the pith?
What advantages do fungi and bacteria provide to plants?
- Fungi - readily absorb phosphorus
- Bacteria - convert nitrogen to nitrates
What are the 2 types of conducting cells in xylem?
What are pit pairs?
- Regions in secondary wall where no cells were deposited
- Can be bordered - contain torus' which close off elements with low pressure
What cells are in the phloem?
- Sieve-tube cells
- Companion cells
How does the phloem transport food?
Source and sink
What are the above ground stem modifications?
- Stolons - Horizontal stem, vegetative reproduction, strawberry
- Tendrils - branch, clings/coils around structures, grape vine
What are the below ground stem modifications?
- Rhizomes- horizontal stem, roots/shoots develop from nodes, stores food, quack grass
- Bulbs - compressed, surrounded by scales, inside scales store food, outside scales protect, onion
- Tubers -swollen, fleshy, storage, buds (eyes), potatoe
- Corms - short, swollen, plant arises from axillary buds, new corms form at base, crocus
What are the 2 main functions of leaves?
- Photosynthesis - manufacture food in sunlight
- Transpiration - maintain water balance
How are leaves formed?
- Chemical signal triggers cell division at shoot apical meristem
- Lateral protrusions form called leaf primordium
- Location determined by phyllotaxy
- Continued cell division/expansion of procambium/protoderm
- Vascular strand produced
- Becomes midvein & epidermis
- Meristematic cells undergo division
- Leaf thickens to form blade and petiole
What structures are a part of the external anatomy of leaves?
- Waxy cuticle
- Guard cells
How do guard cells work?
- Open/close in response to enviro-induced pressures
- K+ ions move out of guard cells, causes opening/closing
- ABA inhibits proton pump causing stomata to close
What structures are part of the internal anatomy of leaves?
- Mesophyll tissue
- Intercellular tissue
- Vascular tissue
What are the 2 mesophyll layers in dicotelydons?
- Palisade layer - upper region, elongated vertical cells, contains >80% of chloroplasts
- Spongy layer - lower region, irregularly shaped cells, fewer chloroplasts
What part of leaf veins do xylem and phloem form on?
- Xylem - upper
- Phloem - lower
What is the vascular strand surrounded by in leaves?
Bundle sheath - loads sugars into phloem, unloads water from xylem
What are the differences between C3 and C4 plants?
- C4 fix twice as much carbon, have a more prominent bundle sheath, and use PEP carboxylase as well as RuBP carboxylase (Rubisco)
- C3 only uses Rubisco
How do CAM plants work?
- Absorb/store CO2 at night when stomata are open
- Similar to C4
- 4-C compounds accumulate in vacuoles, diffuse out in day for calvin cycle
What are some examples of leaf modifications?
- Insect trap
- Tendrils for support
- Spines for protection
- Water loss reduction (smaller, pitted stomata, rolled/folded blade)
- Food storage
- Water storage
- Assexual propagation
- Specialized flowers
What are examples of leafy crops and what part do you eat?
- Cabbage - leaves, sauerkraut/kimchee (formed when terminal meristem does not elongate & inner leaves do not expand)
- Brussel sprouts - leaves
- Kohlrabi - swollen stem
- Cauliflower/broccoli - inflorescences (masses of flower buds)
- Kale/Collards - leaves
What are some examples of root crops?
What are the 5 basic structures of a flower?
- Petals - attachment, symmetry
What are the different forms or petal attachment?
- Apetalous - no petals
- Sympetalous - partially or completely fused
- Choripetalous - separate petals
What are the 2 forms of flower symmetry?
What is the "male house" in a flower called?
What is the "female house" in a flower called?
What subparts are included in the stamen?
What subparts are included in the pistil?
What are complete/incomplete and perfect/imperfect flowers?
- Complete - all foral parts (sepals, petals, stamens, carpels)
- Incomplete - missing 1 or more of above
- Perfect - both female (pistil) and male parts (stamen)
- Imperfect - only female or male
What are inflorescences?
Groups of flowers on a floral axis
What are the 6 different inflorescences?
- Spike - unbranched, flowers attached to central axis
- Raceme - unbranched, flowers attached by pedicels to central axis
- Panicle - branched raceme
- Umbel - flowers attach by pedicels from a common point
- Corymb - unbranched, forms flat-top, unequal length
- Head - peduncle, flowers attached directly to broad receptacle
What are the 4 parts to angiosperm fruit/seed?
- Ovule, Integuements
- 2 polar nuclei & sperm nucleus
- Egg nucleus (1N) & sperm nucleus (1N)
What are the 3 pericarp layers? (Ovary wall)
What are the 2 types of dry fruits?
- Indehiscent - nonsplitting (caryopsis fruit)
- Dehiscent - splitting
What is a superior ovary?
Ovary borne above insertion of sepals & petals
What is an inferior ovary?
Ovary below attachement of sepals, petals, etc
Define primary growth and the 2 locations it occurs in.
- Elongation of plant body due to activity of apical meristem.
- Shoot apical meristem
- Root apical meristem
Define secondary growth and the 2 locations it occurs in
- Increase in girth of plant body due to activity of lateral meristem
- Vascular cambium
- Cork cambium
Where does vascular cambium originate from and what does it do?
- Fascicular and interfascicular cambium
- Produces 2o xylem & phloem via perclinical division (increases rows of cells)
- Maintains own cylindrical structure via anticlinical division (adds to existing row of cells)
Where does the cork cambium originate from and what does it do?
- Parenchyma in cortex
- Produces cork (phellem) to outside and phelloderm to inside via periclinical division
What is the periderm?
- Outer bark
- Phellem + Phellogen + Phelloderm
What are the functions of bark?
- Protection of inner bark and vascular cambium from:
- Intense radiation
- Water loss
What determines the girth of a monocot?
- Apical meristem
- NO secondary growth
What shoot tissues do angiosperms have that gymnosperms do not?