PL SC 221
Card Set Information
PL SC 221
What are the parts of the shoot?
What are the 4 meristems?
What are the 3 types of tissues that arise from the apical meristem?
What does the protoderm form?
Outer protective layer
Covers growing root/shoot
What does the ground meristem form?
Main bulk of plant
Prenchyma, collenchyma, schlerenchyma
What does the procambium form?
What plant hormones inhibit and promote growth of axillary buds?
What is the lateral meristem responsible for?
Increases diameter of stems/roots of woody plants
What does the intercalary meristem do?
Longitudinal growth of plant independent of apical meristem
Occurs in grasses
What are the 2 classes of plants?
What are the 4 functions of roots?
Anchor plants in soil
Absorb water/minerals from the soil
Conduct water/minerals to/from shoots
Provide an area for storage
What are the 4 regions of roots?
What are the different root tissues and what is important about each one?
Epidermis - Single cell layer, absorbing layer
Cortex - Parenchyma cells, occupy largest area, food storage
Endodermis - Single cell layer, surround vascular cylinder
Vascular cylinder - xylem & phloem
What roots form a star-shaped xylem bundle?
Where do lateral roots arise?
What roots have vascular bundles that form a ring around the pith?
What advantages do fungi and bacteria provide to plants?
Fungi - readily absorb phosphorus
Bacteria - convert nitrogen to nitrates
What are the 2 types of conducting cells in xylem?
What are pit pairs?
Regions in secondary wall where no cells were deposited
Can be bordered - contain torus' which close off elements with low pressure
What cells are in the phloem?
How does the phloem transport food?
Source and sink
What are the above ground stem modifications?
Stolons - Horizontal stem, vegetative reproduction, strawberry
Tendrils - branch, clings/coils around structures, grape vine
What are the below ground stem modifications?
Rhizomes- horizontal stem, roots/shoots develop from nodes, stores food, quack grass
Bulbs - compressed, surrounded by scales, inside scales store food, outside scales protect, onion
Tubers -swollen, fleshy, storage, buds (eyes), potatoe
Corms - short, swollen, plant arises from axillary buds, new corms form at base, crocus
What are the 2 main functions of leaves?
Photosynthesis - manufacture food in sunlight
Transpiration - maintain water balance
How are leaves formed?
Chemical signal triggers cell division at shoot apical meristem
Lateral protrusions form called leaf primordium
Location determined by phyllotaxy
Continued cell division/expansion of procambium/protoderm
Vascular strand produced
Becomes midvein & epidermis
Meristematic cells undergo division
Leaf thickens to form blade and petiole
What structures are a part of the external anatomy of leaves?
How do guard cells work?
Open/close in response to enviro-induced pressures
K+ ions move out of guard cells, causes opening/closing
ABA inhibits proton pump causing stomata to close
What structures are part of the internal anatomy of leaves?
What are the 2 mesophyll layers in dicotelydons?
Palisade layer - upper region, elongated vertical cells, contains >80% of chloroplasts
Spongy layer - lower region, irregularly shaped cells, fewer chloroplasts
What part of leaf veins do xylem and phloem form on?
Xylem - upper
Phloem - lower
What is the vascular strand surrounded by in leaves?
Bundle sheath - loads sugars into phloem, unloads water from xylem
What are the differences between C
fix twice as much carbon, have a more prominent bundle sheath, and use PEP carboxylase as well as RuBP carboxylase (Rubisco)
only uses Rubisco
How do CAM plants work?
Absorb/store CO2 at night when stomata are open
Similar to C
4-C compounds accumulate in vacuoles, diffuse out in day for calvin cycle
What are some examples of leaf modifications?
Tendrils for support
Spines for protection
Water loss reduction (smaller, pitted stomata, rolled/folded blade)
What are examples of leafy crops and what part do you eat?
Cabbage - leaves, sauerkraut/kimchee (formed when terminal meristem does not elongate & inner leaves do not expand)
Brussel sprouts - leaves
Kohlrabi - swollen stem
Cauliflower/broccoli - inflorescences (masses of flower buds)
Kale/Collards - leaves
What are some examples of root crops?
What are the 5 basic structures of a flower?
Petals - attachment, symmetry
What are the different forms or petal attachment?
Apetalous - no petals
Sympetalous - partially or completely fused
Choripetalous - separate petals
What are the 2 forms of flower symmetry?
What is the "male house" in a flower called?
What is the "female house" in a flower called?
What subparts are included in the stamen?
What subparts are included in the pistil?
What are complete/incomplete and perfect/imperfect flowers?
Complete - all foral parts (sepals, petals, stamens, carpels)
Incomplete - missing 1 or more of above
Perfect - both female (pistil) and male parts (stamen)
Imperfect - only female or male
What are inflorescences?
Groups of flowers on a floral axis
What are the 6 different inflorescences?
Spike - unbranched, flowers attached to central axis
Raceme - unbranched, flowers attached by pedicels to central axis
Panicle - branched raceme
Umbel - flowers attach by pedicels from a common point
Corymb - unbranched, forms flat-top, unequal length
Head - peduncle, flowers attached directly to broad receptacle
What are the 4 parts to angiosperm fruit/seed?
2 polar nuclei & sperm nucleus
Egg nucleus (1N) & sperm nucleus (1N)
What are the 3 pericarp layers? (Ovary wall)
What are the 2 types of dry fruits?
Indehiscent - nonsplitting (caryopsis fruit)
Dehiscent - splitting
What is a superior ovary?
Ovary borne above insertion of sepals & petals
What is an inferior ovary?
Ovary below attachement of sepals, petals, etc
Define primary growth and the 2 locations it occurs in.
Elongation of plant body due to activity of apical meristem.
Shoot apical meristem
Root apical meristem
Define secondary growth and the 2 locations it occurs in
Increase in girth of plant body due to activity of lateral meristem
Where does vascular cambium originate from and what does it do?
Fascicular and interfascicular cambium
xylem & phloem via perclinical division (increases rows of cells)
Maintains own cylindrical structure via anticlinical division (adds to existing row of cells)
Where does the cork cambium originate from and what does it do?
Parenchyma in cortex
Produces cork (phellem) to outside and phelloderm to inside via periclinical division
What is the periderm?
Phellem + Phellogen + Phelloderm
What are the functions of bark?
Protection of inner bark and vascular cambium from:
What determines the girth of a monocot?
NO secondary growth
What shoot tissues do angiosperms have that gymnosperms do not?