Criminal Investigation study guide exam 1

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Criminal Investigation study guide exam 1
2014-02-25 09:36:35
Criminal Investigation study guide exam
Criminal Investigation
Criminal Investigation study guide exam 1
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  1. Frank-pledge system
    all citizens must detect, control, and punish wrong-doers (middle ages)
  2. Watches
    Government and merchant-financed patrols (through `17th century)
  3. Parliamentary Reward system
    paid those who helped convict a felon (abolished in 1818)
  4. Thief Taking
    paid Criminals to catch criminals origins of criminal investigations (early 1700s)
  5. English Detective (Bow Street Runners) (1748)
    1st early investigators
  6. Metropolitan police act (1829)
    English Legislation that led to the development of he London Metropolitan police the First ever paid uniform police..
  7. The FBI uniform Crime Report (UCR)
    tracks crime statistics nationwide
  8. Sir Robert Peel
    Father of modern policing
  9. Inspector Thomas Byrnes
    • Chief of detectives, NYPD; Developed
    • Modus Operandi, (M.O.)

    built up a book of photographs of criminals, which he called the "Rogues Gallery" (photo identification)
  10. Allan Pinkerton
    Father of criminal investigations

    1st Detective Chicago pd. opened private detective agency

    • contributions were 
    • Surveillance
    • undercover work
    • strict code of ethics/honest, efficient policing
    • Handwriting examination
    • 1st female detective
    • advocated international police cooperation
  11. Definition of Criminalistics
    The Application of many fields of natural science to the detection of Crime.
  12. Alphonse Bertillon
    • Founder of criminal identification, 
    • created a new system called "Anthropometry"
    • the mug shot
    • portrait parle
    • 1st in Europe to solve a murder case on fingerprints
  13. Juan Vucetich
    • a Founder of fingerprint classification
    • credited to be the first fingerprint classification system
  14. Francis Galton
    known as the first individual to publish a definitive study of fingerprint identification

    proved that fingerprints are both unchagning and unique.

    demonstrated that mathematically that there are approximently 64 trillion chances to one of matching prints
  15. Arthur Conan Doyle
  16. Arthur Conan Doyle
    writer, known for creating the fictional detective Sherlock holmes and Dr Watson
  17. Calvin Goddard
    Developed the now standard system of tracing bullets and associated evidence to weapons from which they were fired
  18. Robert Heindl
    Criminalist that studied witnesses reliability, and found that witnesses remembered people being older and taller
  19. Edmond locard
    pioneer of forensic science

    He formulated the basic principle of forensic science: "Every contact leaves a trace". This became known as Locard's exchange principle.
  20. Alec Jeffreys
    discovered the concept of DNA profiling "genetic Fingerprinting"
  21. First Forensic Lab
    LAPD has the oldest lab (1923)
  22. CSI Effect
    Jurors demand more forensic evidence at trial

    Raising the standard of proof for prosecutors
  23. Detective
    In 1853 Charles Dickens coined the term in his novel Bleak House...
  24. Assignment by priority
    larger department assign cases on priority, giving higher priority to crimes against people than crimes against property
  25. assignment by caseload
    each detective gets an equal amount of cases, and all detectives are generalist
  26. Criminal Investigation
    the logical objective legal inquiry into possible criminal activity
  27. percentage of sworn police officers who are detectives in most large law enforcement agencies
    about 10%
  28. National Crime Victimization survey
    The survey focuses on the frequency of crime victimization, as well as characteristics and consequences of victimization
  29. The Dark Figure of Crime
    unreported and undiscovered crime for any reason
  30. the annual number of serious crimes (reported and unreported combined) committed in the U.S.
    about 50 % of crime is unreported 

    49 million a year
  31. Define and Describe the desirable traits of the investigator
    superior reasoning ability

    critical thinking

    imagination and curiosity

  32. elements of critical thinking
    differentiate between fact and oppionion

    determining cause and effect relationships

    determining the accuracy and completeness of information

    Being able to recognize logical fallacies and faulty reasoning

    developing inferential skills through inductive and deductive reasoning
  33. ethics (according to the text)
    the normative study of rightness or wrongness of human conduct
  34. causes of unethical behavior
    caused by pressure to make arrests, greed, peer pressure, or "an ends justifies the means attitude"
  35. Police investigators
    a sworn in law enforcement officer
  36. public investigators
    employed by public agencies

    such as public defenders, coroners office, etc.
  37. private investigators
    not associated with government agencies

  38. steps of scientific/investigative method
    state the problem

    form the hypothesis

    observe and experiment

    interpret the data

    draw conclustions
  39. direct evidence
    proves a fact without support
  40. physical evidence
    any object or item associated with the investigation (real tangible evidence)
  41. indirect evidence (circumstantial)
    does not directly prove a fact at issue, but establishes a strong inference.
  42. circumstantial evidence
    same as indirect evidence
  43. competent evidence
    responsible evidence, suffiecient to prove a fact has a bearing on the case.

    competent evidence can pertain to physical items, documents, and people
  44. material evidence
    has a logical connection with the issue under investigation, and has a bearing on the determination of truth
  45. relevant evidence
    is pertinent and relates directly to the matter under consideration
  46. documentary evidence
    represents or portrays an item
  47. inculpatory evidence
    incriminating evidence (needed to establish guilt)
  48. exculpatory evidence
    clears a person of blame or legal guilt
  49. define hearsay and its exceptions
    relating statements of another person generally inadmissible

    • exceptions:
    • investigators can testify
    • suspects make admissions or confessions
    • reference to official records
    • res gestae declaration
    • dying declarations
  50. the rule of discovery
    allows defense to examine information held by prosecution/police

    motions filed early prepare a defense and have experts examine evidence
  51. probable cause
    amount of facts that would lead a reasonable officer to believe a persons is/has/going to commit is in the act of committing or has committed a crime
  52. search warrant
    requires probable cause

    authorized by a judge

    needs specificity of items and location to be searched

    and an affidavit is attached that establishes probable cause
  53. the different investigative stages
    • 1) preliminary investigation - first responders
    • 2) in-depth investigation - detectives
    • 3) concluding investigation - either results in case suspended for lack of leads, case cleared (exceptional circumstance such as suspect deceased) or case successfully concluded (arrest made and preparing for prosecution)
  54. ultimate objective of investigations
    to determine the truth about how a crime occured
  55. what criminal offenses have the highest probability of clearnace
    Homicide (60%)
  56. what criminal offenses have the lowest probability of clearnace
  57. what is the national average arrest rate of reported serious crimes
  58. duties and responsibilities of the first responder
    after emergencies are handled

    protect the scene
  59. the steps and characteristics of crime scene photography
    Coordinated series photos _ general pictures of the scene, than specific ones

    measurement markers are used to scale items, two pictures are taken, original and then with the marker

    Id data is placed on the photo
  60. the types of crime scene searches
    Grid search (name explains itself)

    spiral search (name explains itself)

    sector search (each person gets a section like 4 squares)

    strip search (the search is serpent shaped)
  61. Sketches
    measured sketches include

    rectangular coordinate (2 right angles)

    Triangulation (open field, 2 fixed points reference)

    Cross projection (exploded set) - 3 dimensional view obtained by drawing an folded box
  62. various measurements methods
    measurement markers used to scale items

    measured drawings showing location of items

    measured sketches
  63. crime scene contamination
    occurs when evidence is altered, removed, or destroyed in any manner
  64. maintaining the chain of custody
    accounting for the location and possession of an item from collection to the courtroom
  65. theory of transfer
    anytime anyone enters a scene, the bring something to it

    when someone leaves; they take something away
  66. crime scene staging
    Attempts to redirect investigation from the truth
  67. personation
    suspect leaves by action or evidence, unique personality traits

    repeat/recurring/ritualistic at more than one crime scene becomes a signature