BIO102 THIRD DEPEX

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annalyze
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BIO102 THIRD DEPEX
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2014-02-25 10:09:44
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EXAM BIOLOGY UROGENITAL DIGESTIVE RESPIRATORY
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THIRD BIOLOGY EXAM: UROGENITAL, DIGESTIVE, AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS
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  1. maintenance of a ratio between salt and water quantities in the body fluids fit for an organism’s survival
    OSMOREGULATION
  2. the major role of kidneys in an aquatic environment.
    OSMOREGULATION
  3. 3 FORMS OF NITROGENOUS WASTES
    • 1. AMMONIA
    • 2. UREA
    • 3. URIC ACID
  4. least energy cost, highly toxic, highly soluble, and greatest H2O requirement),
    AMMONIA
  5. most energy cost, nontoxic, least soluble, and least H2O requirement).
    URIC ACID
  6. tufts of microscopic capillary-like arterial loops, or retia mirabilia, on the pathway of an arteriole
    GLOMERULI
  7. where H2O, ions, metabolic waste products are removed from the bloodstream
    GLOMERULI
  8. most primitive condition of glomeruli
    EXTERNAL GLOMERULI
  9. suspended in the coelom surrounded by peritoneum
    EXTERNAL GLOMERULI
  10. From the external glomeruli, filtrate is discharged into the coelomic fluid, then into a peritoneal funnel, or __________, leading to a tubule
    NEPHROSTOME
  11. Glomeruli confined to embryos and larvae in today’s craniates
    External Glomeruli
  12. Internal glomeruli is _________, embedded within the dorsal body wall.
    Retroperitoneal
  13. A delicate double-walled outgrowth from a kidney tubule covering the internal glomeruli
    Bowman's capsule
  14. its inner wall adheres to the vascular loops’ surfaces
    internal glomeruli
  15. In internal glomeruli, filtrate passes into a ____________ after its collection by the capsular cavity
    renal tubule
  16. consists of a glomerulus and the surrounding capsule.
    RENAL CORPUSCLE
  17. functional unit of a gnathostome kidney
    NEPHRON
  18. Nephron consists of _____, ______, and _____
    renal corpuscle, renal tubule, and the associated peritubular capillaries.
  19. supplies a glomerulus
    AFFERENT GLOMERULAR ARTERIOLE
  20. sole source of blood in the peritubular capillaries of therian mammals (no renal portal system)
    EFFERENT GLOMERULAR ARTERIOLE
  21. from a glomerulus and of lesser diameter for the increase of blood pressure within the glomerulus
    EFFERENT GLOMERULAR ARTERIOLE
  22. intermediate mesoderm
    NEPHROGENIC MESODERM
  23. renal tubules differentiate from this germ layer
    Nephrogenic mesoderm
  24. Nephrogenic mesoderm is most specialized in
    Mammals
  25. site of drainage of renal tubules
    COMMON COLLECTING TUBULES
  26. no peritubular capillaries
    AGNATHANS
  27. They have intraperitoneal kidneys
    LAMPREYS, NECTURUS
  28. kidneys bulge into the roof of the coelom
    MAMMALS
  29. In MARINE TELEOSTS, water conservation adaptations evolved:

    -Removal of _______ = increased H2O retention
    - Shortening of the ______________ = removal of major site of salt reabsorption
    GLOMERULI, DISTAL SEGMENT OF THE TUBULES
  30. major site of reabsorption
    DISTAL SEGMENT OF THE TUBULES
  31. unusually large glomeruli and unusually long tubules; retain urea;
    ELASMOBRANCHS
  32. ELASMOBRANCHS - those which are marine are potentially __________ (the imbalance provides influx of water for metabolic processes and waste elimination) and possess ___________ (secrete chlorides into the intestine’s caudal end)
    HYPEROSMOTIC, RECTAL GLANDS
  33. able to migrate up from the sea into freshwater streams
    ANADROMOUS
  34. primary stimulus for hormone release that induce H2O reabsorption from glomerular filtrate in tetrapods
    DEHYDRATION
  35. hypothetical primitive kidney consisting of 1 external glomerulus, 1 nephrostome, and 1 unconvoluted tubule in each body segment along the entire length of the coelom
    ARCHINEPHROS
  36. kidney extending the length of the coelom; transient larval hagfish kidney
    HOLONEPHROS
  37. adult hagfish kidney = __________
    MESONEPHROS
  38. 3 MAIN PROCESSES IN URINE FORMATION:
    •  glomerular filtration
    •  tubular reabsorption
    •  tubular secretion
  39. In most fishes, nitrogenous wastes are eliminated via ______________.
    EXTRARENAL MEANS
  40. In marine ones, certain salts are ________________
    TUBULAR SECRETIONS
  41. In general, freshwater fishes and aquatic amphibians = _______________
    LARGER GLOMERULI
  42. marine fishes and tetrapods = __________
     smaller glomeruli
  43. excrete nitrogenous wastes as ammonia,
    AMMONOTELIC e.g. freshwater and marine teleosts, aquatic/semi-aquatic amphibians
  44. excrete nitrogen as urea
    UREOTELIC e.g. elasmobranchs and mammals
  45. excrete nitrogen in a semisolid urine as uric acid
    URICOTELIC e.g. reptiles
  46. early embryonic (temporary) kidney tubule forming in the cranial kidney
    PRONEPHRIC TUBULE
  47. cranial kidney; anteriorly located in the nephrogenic mesoderm
    PRONEPHROS
  48. embryonic collecting tube for the kidney tubules
    PRONEPHRIC DUCT
  49. TRUE OR FALSE: Pronephric duct does not regress and continues to drain the mesonephric tubules
    TRUE
  50. In TELEOSTS, the site of the embryonic pronephros becomes a ___________.
    LYMPHOID ORGAN
  51. intermediate kidney
    MESONEPHROS
  52. functional kidney of the nephrogenic mesoderm caudal to the pronephric region
    MESONEPHRIC KIDNEY
  53. adult kidney of fishes and amphibians
    MESONEPHRIC KIDNEY
  54. AGNATHANS

    ______________
    -Larval holonephros, with modifications
    -__________nephrostomes
    -Large, segmental renal corpuscles connected to the longitudinal duct by very short tubules
    -No peritubular capillaries nor renal portal system
    -With _________ corpuscles
    • Hagfish Myxine
    • Closed
    • Aglomerular
  55. AGNATHANS

    ________
    -Adult kidney is a long, thin fold extending about half the length of the coelom and hanging into it
    -Mesonephric duct is along its free edge.
    -Large renal corpuscles, more tubules than body segments, and no peritubular capillaries nor nephrostomes
    LAMPREYS
  56. GNATHOSTOME FISHES and AMPHIBIANS

    ____________anterior mesonephric tubules that become associated with the testes and the sperm channels; called __________ in mammals
    VASA EFFERENTIA, EFFERENT DUCTULES
  57. GNATHOSTOME FISHES and AMPHIBIANS

    ____________
    coiled part of the mesonephric duct that drains the vasa efferentia
    EPIDIDYMIS
  58. GNATHOSTOME FISHES and AMPHIBIANS

    ___________
    portion of male kidney preempted for sperm transport; absent in male teleosts
    SEXUAL KIDNEY
  59. GNATHOSTOME FISHES and AMPHIBIANS

    _______________
    supplement, or replace, the mesonephric duct as urine carrier; for elasmobranchs
    ACCESSORY URINARY DUCTS
  60. AMNIOTES

    _________
    embryonic kidney;
    MESONEPHROS
  61. MESONEPHRIC REMNANTS IN ADULT AMNIOTES

    _____________ & ____________ – in the dorsal mesentery of the ovary
    EPOOPHORON, PARAOPHORON
  62. MESONEPHRIC REMNANTS IN ADULT AMNIOTES

    ________________ & __________________
    near the epididymis in the dorsal mesentery of the testis
    PARADIDYMIS & APPENDIX OF THE EPIDIDYMIS
  63. Mesonephric ducts remain sperm ducts in all male amniotes while its remnants include a _____________ in female ones.
    GARTNER’S DUCT
  64. METANEPHROS

    embryonic evagination of the caudal mesonephric duct
    METANEPHRIC BUD
  65. METANEPHROS

    In association with nephrogenic mesoderm, gives rise to the adult amniote metanephric kidney
    METANEPHRIC BUD
  66. METANEPHROS

    tubular connection between the metanephric kidney and the embryonic mesonephric duct
    URETER
  67. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    expanded portion of the ureter within the kidney
    RENAL PELVIS
  68. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    with funnel-shaped extensions (_______)
    RENAL PELVIS, calyxes
  69. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    collects urine from the common collecting tubules
    RENAL PELVIS
  70. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    -U-shaped portion of the kidney tubule
    -alter the osmotic pressure of the fluid within the tubule
    LOOP OF HENLE
  71. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    peritubular capillaries that parallel the loops of Henle; site of countercurrent exchange within the nephron (countercurrent multiplier theory)
    VASA RECTA
  72. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    Has 2 parts: ______ (glomeruli, convoluted tubules, upper ends of the loops of Henle) and _______ (loops and collecting tubules)
    CORTEX, MEDULLA
  73. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    aggregation of loops of Henle, vasa recta, and collecting tubules
    PYRAMID
  74. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    -blunt tip of a renal pyramid extending into the renal pelvis
    RENAL PAPILLA
  75. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    -a median notch where the arteries, veins, nerves, and ureters enter and exit
    HILUS
  76. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    -In male __________ and _______ = ureters terminate in mesonephric ducts
    SPHENODONS, LIZARDS
  77. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    -In other ________ and ________ = ureters open into the cloaca
    REPTILES, MONOTREMES
  78. METANEPHROS

    In a MAMMALIAN kidney:
    -In ______________ = ureters open into the urinary bladder
    THERIAN MAMMALS
  79. _____________________ - for craniates living in a salt-laden or arid environment
    EXTRARENAL SALT EXCRETION
  80. EXTRARENAL
    ________________ = chloride-secreting glands on the gills
    MARINE TELEOSTS
  81. EXTRARENAL
    ___________ and __________ = chloride-secreting rectal glands
    ELASMOBRANCHS, COELACANTHS
  82. EXTRARENAL
    TURTLES, SNAKES, IGUANAS, LIZARDS, some BIRDS = ___________
    SALT GLANDS
  83. EXTRARENAL
    AGNATHANS = integumentary mucuous glands
  84. -adaptation to life on land
    -as reservoirs for water (by antidiuretic hormone from the hypothalamus)
    -arise during embryonic development as an evagination from the ventral wall of the embryonic cloaca (In mammals, this evagination is called an __________.)
    URINARY BLADDERS, ALLANTOIS
  85. remnant of the embryonic allantois connecting the urinary bladder with the umbilicus (naval) in therian mammals
    MIDDLE UMBILICAL LIGAMENT, or URACHUS
  86. Urinary bladders in fishes arise from _________________ (not from the cloaca!) and aren’t homologues of tetrapod bladders
    nephrogenic mesoderm
  87. elongated sac at the junction of the 2 mesonephric ducts in teleosts
    TUBAL BLADDER
  88. Only nontherian tetrapods with urinary bladders
    amphibians, turtles, basal lizards, monotremes, and a few ratite birds
  89. GENITAL ORGANS

    A. GONADAL PRIMORDIA
    Major functions:
    •  gamete production
    •  synthesis of steroidal hormones
  90. GENITAL ORGANS
    reproductive duct or gland
    ACCESSORY SEX ORGAN
  91. GENITAL ORGANS

    feature associated with one sex
    SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTIC
  92. GENITAL ORGANS
     embryonic thickening of the coelomic mesothelium
     site of gonad formation
    GENITAL RIDGE
  93. GENITAL ORGANS
    progenitor of sperm and eggs
    PRIMORDIAL GERM CELL
  94. GENITAL ORGANS
    region of the genital ridge serving as the gonadal primordium
    GERMINAL EPITHELIUM
  95. GENITAL ORGANS
    remnant of the dorsal mesentery supporting the testis
    MESORCHIUM
  96. GENITAL ORGANS
    remnant of the dorsal mesentery supporting the ovary
    MESOVARIUM
  97. GENITAL ORGANS
     initial migration of germinal epithelia and germ cells into the deeper region of the genital ridge in the bisexual early development of gonads
    PRIMARY SEX CORD
  98. GENITAL ORGANS
    in males, becomes a seminiferous tubule
    PRIMARY SEX CORD
  99. GENITAL ORGANS
     regresses in females and becomes a medullary cord
    PRIMARY SEX CORD
  100. GENITAL ORGANS
    passageway developed within a primary sex cord lined with germinal epithelia that produces sperm
    SEMINIFEROUS TUBULE
  101. GENITAL ORGANS
    migration of germinal epithelia and female germ cells into the superficial region of the genital ridge in the early development of ovaries
    SECONDARY SEX CORD
  102. GENITAL ORGANS
    source of ova
    SECONDARY SEX CORD
  103. GENITAL ORGANS
     embryonic anterior testis in anurans
     not functional in the adult
     capable under experimental manipulation to convert to ovaries
    BIDDER'S ORGAN
  104. GENITAL ORGANS
    With a single ovary  hagfishes, some viviparous elasmobranchs, a few nonavian reptiles, most species of birds, platypus, some bats
    ~memorize~
  105. GENITAL ORGANS
    In all craniates, mature eggs are released into the ______ while sperm are conducted in a closed system of vessels (except in agnathans).
    COELOM
  106. All living agnathan gametes are shed into the ______.
    COELOM
  107. Pathway of sperm:
    • seminiferous tubules
    • rete testis (in mammals)
    • vasa efferentia
    • sperm duct
    • cloaca(in mammals, urethra at the prostrate gland)
  108. TESTES AND MALE GENITAL DUCTS
    network of channels collecting sperm in route to the vasa efferentia in mammalian testes
    RETE TESTIS
  109. TESTES AND MALE GENITAL DUCTS
    new sperm duct of some fishes and urodeles replacing the mesonephric duct for that purpose
    MARGINAL CANAL
  110. TESTES AND MALE GENITAL DUCTS
    a duct that carries only sperm
    VAS DEFERENS / DUCTUS DEFERENS
  111. TESTES AND MALE GENITAL DUCTS
    contribute to the seminal fluid
    MULTICELLULAR GLANDS
  112. TESTES AND MALE GENITAL DUCTS
    MULTICELLULAR GLANDS
    •  ampullary glands
    •  prostate glands
    •  seminal vesicles
    •  coagulating glands
    •  bulbourethral (Cowper’s) glands
  113. TESTES AND MALE GENITAL DUCTS
    coagulated semen in the vagina; precludes another mating
    COPULATION PLUG
  114. Urethra in male mammals:
    where the prostate glands empty
    PROSTATIC URETHRA
  115. Urethra in male mammals:
    from the prostate glands to the base of the penis
    MEMBRANOUS URETHRA
  116. Urethra in male mammals:
    within the penis
    SPONGY URETHRA
  117. In most craniates with mesonephric kidneys, the  _________   carry both urine and sperm.
    mesonephric ducts
  118. No seminiferous tubules  hagfishes, lampreys, some jawed fishes, urodeles (instead have a ____________________ – cystlike site of sperm formation)
    SEMINIFEROUS AMPULLA
  119. -male structure for the introduction of sperm into the female reproductive tract

    – found in fishes with internal fertilization, anuran family Ascaphidae, reptiles, a few birds, all mammals, some urodeles
    INTROMITTENT (COPULATORY) ORGANS
  120. INTROMITTENT ORGAN
     in elasmobranchs
     a modified pelvic fin
     with a muscular ______ ___ that adds energy-rich mucopolysaccharide to the sperm transfer
    CLASPERS, SIPHON SAC
  121. INTROMITTENT ORGAN
    -for sperm transfer in many teleosts
    -modified anal fin
    GONOPODIUM
  122. INTROMITTENT ORGAN
    Permanent tubular, tail-like extension of cloaca
    frog Ascaphus
  123. INTROMITTENT ORGAN
    male snakes and lizards
    HEMIPENES
  124. INTROMITTENT ORGAN
    male turtles, crocodilians, ostriches, ducks, monotremes
    UNPAIRED, ERECTILE PENIS
  125. UNPAIRED ERECTILE PENIS
    consists of ____________ with a __________ (which channels sperm toward the cloaca) on its surface and ends in a _________ _____
    CORPUS SPONGIOSUM, URETHRAL GROOVE, GLANS PENIS
  126. INTROMITTENT ORGAN (THERIAN MAMMALS)
    embryonic outgrowth forming the female clitoris or, in part, the male penis
    GENITAL TUBERCLE
  127. INTROMITTENT ORGAN (THERIAN MAMMALS)
    -embryonic fold bordering the urogenital sinus
    -forms labia minora in the female and, in part, the male penis
    GENITAL FOLD
  128. OVARIES
    shedding of an egg into the coelomic space
    OVULATION
  129. OVARIES
    – yellow body of the ovary
    – ovulated follicle with endocrine function
    – major source of progesterone for pregnancy maintenance
    CORPUS LUTEUM
  130. OVARIES
    In teleosts: __________ (reason is either: entrapment of a small part of the coelomic cavity with the developing ovary or a secondary hollowing out of the interior of the ovary at each ovulation)
    HOLLOW OVARY
  131. OVARIES
    In therian mammals:____________ (with _______, a fluid-filled cavity, within the egg follicles, or _____________, as ovulation approaches)
    COMPACT OVARY, ANTRA. GRAAFIAN FOLLICLES
  132. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    due to the insufficient elongation of ligaments and their actual shortening during late fetal development
  133. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    – shallow evagination of the embryonic coelomic floor adjacent to genital folds
    – site of future scrotal sac in males and labia majora in females
    GENITAL SWELLING
  134. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    – contain testis in mammals
    – absent in monotremes, elephants, whales
    – maintain sperm at a cooler temperature
    SCROTAL SACS
  135. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    – major lips of the vulva, or external genitalia in females
    – homologues of the male scrotal sacs
    LABIA MAJORA
  136. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    – coelomic peritoneum lining the scrotal sacs
    INTERNAL SPERMATIC FASCIA
  137. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    – ligament connecting the testis with the floor of a scrotal sac
    GUBERNACULUM
  138. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    -ligament between the ovary and the uterus
    OVARIAN LIGAMENT
  139. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    -ligament between the uterus and the floor of the labium majus
    ROUND LIGAMENT OF THE UTERUS
  140. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    – passageway between the abdominal cavity and the scrotal cavity
    INGUINAL CANAL
  141. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    – abdominal entrance to the inguinal canal
    – when abnormally wide, it’s the site of ________________ (protrusion of abdominal cavity contents through the inguinal canal
    INGUINAL RING, INGUINAL HERNIA
  142. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    -the 2 scrotal sacs
    SCROTUM
  143. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    – composite structure composed of spermatic duct, vessels, nerves, and spermatic fascia dragged into the scrotal cavity with the descent of the testis
    SPERMATIC CORD
  144. TRANSLOCATION OF MAMMALIAN GONADS
    – vessels of the testis forming a countercurrent network for heat exchange
    PAMPINIFORM PLEXUS
  145. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    _________ that commence at an _______ (an opening to the coelom), leading to the neck of an _____________ (_________), and ending in the cloaca.
    OVIDUCTS, OSTIUM, OVIDUCAL FUNNEL (INFUNDIBULUM)
  146. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    no genital ducts
    AGNATHANS
  147. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    aberrant genital ducts
    RAY-FINNED FISHES
  148. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    female embryonic reproductive ducts in craniates other than ray-finned fishes
    MUELLERIAN DUCTS
  149. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    MUELLERIAN DUCTS
    In ________ and ________ : arise by longitudinal splitting of the pronephric ducts
    elasmobranchs and amphibians
  150. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    MUELLERIAN DUCTS
    In other craniates  arise as a longitudinal groove in the coelomic epithelium paralleling the mesonephric duct
    :)
  151. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    remnant of the dorsal mesentery supporting the oviduct in non-mammalians
    MESOTUBARIUM
  152. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    Muellerian ducts of female sharks gives rise to an oviduct that develops a ___________ (specialization of the oviduct for deposition of coatings on an egg) and ______
    SHELL GLAND, UTERUS
  153. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    Oviducts of _______  not homologous with those of other craniates
    teleosts
  154. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    – structures for laying eggs (in teleosts)
    OVIPOSITORS
  155. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    – where ovulated eggs accumulate until they’re shed (in anurans)
    OVISACS
  156. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    In ____, _______, ______  only 1 of the 2 embryonic muellerian ducts differentiates
    birds, reptiles, monotremes
  157. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    IN FOWLS,
    albumen-secreting area
    MAGNUM
  158. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    IN FOWLS,
    shell gland
    UTERUS
  159. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    IN FOWLS, 
    muscular segment of uterus at entrance of the cloaca; secretes mucus that seals the pores of the shell, preventing water loss
    VAGINA
  160. FEMALE GENITAL TRACTS IN CRANIATES (excluding therian mammals)

    dorsal diverticula of the cloaca or tubular crypt in the oviduct for the storage of sperm in many salamanders, squamates, and some birds
    SPERMATHECAE
  161. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

     Muellerian ducts of eutherian mammals unite at their caudal ends.

     Tract of eutherian mammals: 2 ______, a _____ with or without _____ (_____), and a _____
    • oviducts
    • uterus
    • horns (cornu)
    • vagina
  162. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    Relatively short, small in diameter, more or less convoluted, and line with cilia
    OVIDUCTS / FALLOPIAN TUBES
  163. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    a membranous fold of peritoneum enveloping the ovary and the oviducal funnel, entrapping them and a small coelomic cul-de-sac; increases the probability that ovulated eggs’ll enter the oviduct; absent in humans
    OVARIAN BURSA
  164. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    the fertilized ovum develops outside the womb
    ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
  165. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    _________ – 2 separate uteri (a ______ uterus) and 2 vaginas
    Marsupials, DUPLEX
  166. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    Eutherian mammals
    _________ uterus (with 2 horns in which the young develop)
    BICORNUATE
  167. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    Eutherian mammals
    _________ uterus – divided into 2 parts almost to the base (e.g. rabbits, rodents)
    BIPARTITE
  168. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    Eutherian Mammals
    _______ uterus - consisting of a single cavity, representing the greatest degree of fusion of the muellerian ducts; no uterine horns (e.g. armadillos, some bats, monkeys, apes, humans)
    SIMPLEX
  169. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    ________= narrow neck of the uterus; projects into the vagina as the lips of the cervix surrounding the ________, or opening of the uterus into the vagina
    CERVIX, OS UTERI
  170. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    uterine lining
    ENDOMETRIUM
  171. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    thick muscular layer of the uterine wall
    MYOMETRIUM
  172. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    hormone responsible for the dilation of the cervix
    RELAXIN
  173. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    the unpaired terminal portion of the embryonic muellerian ducts
    VAGINA
  174. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    – a derivative of the embryonic cloaca
    – terminal cavity in which the vagina empties (except in rodents = vagina opens directly to the exterior)
    UROGENITAL SINUS
  175. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    – antechamber of the vagina in apes and humans
    – bordered by the labia minora (homologue, in part, to the male penis) and overlaid by the labia majora
    VESTIBULE OF THE VULVA
  176. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    – site where paired vaginas of marsupials are adjacent at the uterine openings
    – path of fetus through intervening septum to the urogenital sinus
    MEDIAN VAGINA
  177. FEMALE TRACTS OF THERIAN MAMMALS

    – male marsupials
    BIFURCATED PENIS
  178. MUELLERIAN DUCT REMNANTS IN ADULT MALES

    Paired ___________ of sharks
    sperm sacs
  179. MUELLERIAN DUCT REMNANTS IN ADULT MALES

    In mammals,
    homologue of the oviducal funnel
    APPENDIX TESTIS
  180. MUELLERIAN DUCT REMNANTS IN ADULT MALES

    homologue of the vagina
    PROSTATIC SINUS / VAGINA MASCULINA
  181. CLOACA
    1. Some reptiles (including birds) and monotremes

     ___________ ____ – divides the cloaca’s cephalic end into 2 channels: _______ (receives the urogenital ducts) and ________ (receives the alimentary canal)
    URORECTAL FOLD, URODEUM, COPRODEUM
  182. CLOACA
    1. Some reptiles (including birds) and monotremes

    __________ – terminal (unpartitioned) portion of the cloaca; not homologous with the ectodermal proctodeum of embryos
    PROCTODEUM
  183. CLOACA

    In therian mammals
    CLOACA is divided into a ___________ _____ and a ______.
    UROGENITAL SINUS, RECTUM
  184. CLOACA

    In therian mammals
    2 openings to the exterior: an ____ and a ___________ _______
    ANUS, UROGENITAL APERTURE
  185. CLOACA

    In therian mammals
    In _________: muellerian ducts regress, urogenital sinus becomes continuous with urethra, ureters open into the bladder, mesonephric ducts (sperm ducts) empty into the urogenital sinus
    males
  186. CLOACA

    In therian mammals

    In _______: mesonephric ducts regress, muellerian ducts unite at their caudal ends, urethra is the part of the urogenital sinus between the bladder and the entrance of the vagina
    females
  187. CLOACA

    In therian mammals

    Female ____, _______, ______, and some ______ has additional partition in the embryonic cloaca, resulting to its subdivision into a _____, ______, and ______
    apes, monkeys, humans, rodents

    urethra, vagina, and rectum
  188. CLOACA

    In therian mammals
     In monkeys and rodents  all 3 exit directly to the exterior

     In apes and humans – vagina and urethra open separately into the shallow ______________; anus opens directly to the exterior
    vestibule of the vulva
  189. CLOACA

    In therian mammals

    __________________ – production of both gametes (e.g. agnathans, some bony fishes)
    HERMAPHRODITISM
  190. CLOACA

    In therian mammals

    ___________________– asexual cloning (e.g. lizards)
    PARTHENOGENESIS
  191. CLOACAIn therian mammals

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