TTK Chapter 1

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toolazytothink
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263814
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TTK Chapter 1
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2014-02-24 22:18:21
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Bio113
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Bio 113
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  1. Anatomy
    branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans
  2. Physiology
    branch of biology concerned with the normal functions of organisms
  3. Levels of Structural Organization in the Human Body
    • 1 Chemical
    • 2 cellular
    • 3 tissue
    • 4 organ
    • 5 system
    • 6 organismal
  4. Atoms
    basic unit of a chemical element
  5. Molecules
    group of atoms bonded together
  6. Cells
    smallest structural and functional unit of a organism
  7. Tissues
    • 1 Muscles
    • 2 Nerve
    • 3 epithelial
    • 4 connective
  8. Organ
    part of organism typically self contained and has a specific function
  9. Organ Systems
    group of organs that work together to perform a certain function
  10. Organism
    individual animal, plant, or single celled lifeform
  11. The Integumentary System
    • Organs: skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands
    • Functions: Protects the body, regulates temp, helps make vitamin D, detects sensation
  12. The Skeletal System
    Organs: bones, cartilage, and joints

    Functions: Supports and protects body provides surface area for muscle attachments aids movement, houses cells that produce blood cells stores minerals and lipids
  13. The Muscular System
    Organs: bones, cartilage, and joints

    Functions: Supports and protects body provides surface area for muscle attachments aids movement, houses cells that produce blood cells stores minerals and lipids
  14. The Nervous System
    Organs: bones, cartilage, and joints

    Functions: Supports and protects body provides surface area for muscle attachments aids movement, houses cells that produce blood cells stores minerals and lipids
  15. The Endocrine System
    • Organs: Hormone producing glands
    • Functions: regulates body activities by releasing hormones
  16. The Cardiovascular System
    • Organs:Organs: Blood, heart, blood vessels
    • Functions:Functions: heart pumps blood, blood carries oxygen to cells and co2 away, regulates acid-base balance, temp, and water content of body fluids, defend against disease and repair damaged vessels
  17. The Lymphatic System
    • Organs: lymphatic fluid, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils
    • Functions: returns proteins and fluid to blood, carries lipids from gi tract, contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B and T cellstat protects against disease causing microbes
  18. The Respiratory System
    • Organs: Lungs
    • Functions: transfers o2 to blood from inhaled air and co2 from blood to exhaled air, helps regulate acid-base balance of fluids, produces sound
  19. The Digestive System
    • Organs: stomach, small\large intestines, anus, salivary glands, liver galbladder, pancreas
    • Functions: physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs nutrients, eliminates solid waste
  20. TheUrinary System
    • Organs: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
    • Functions: produces stores andeliminats urine, eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood, mainains acid-base balance of blood, maintains mineral balance, regulates production of red blood cells
  21. Basic Life Processes
    • 1)metabolism
    • 2)Responsiveness
    • 3)Movement
    • 4) Growth
    • 5)differentiation
    • 6)Reproduction
  22. Metabolism
    • Catabolism: breaking down of complex chemical substances into simpler ones
    • Anabolism: Creating of complex substances from simpler ones
  23. Responsiveness
    Ability of the Body to respond to and detect changes in its environment
  24. Movement
    Motion of the whole body from the macro to the micro level
  25. Growth
    Increase in body size
  26. Differentiation
    Unspecialized cells become specialized cells
  27. Stem Cells
    Unspecialized cells that can make cells that undergo differentiation
  28. Reproduction
    • 1 Formation of new cells for tissue growth repair or replacement
    • 2 Production of new individual
  29. Homeostasis
    maintenance of relatively stable conditions in the body's internal environment
  30. Body Fluids
    dilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals inside the cells and surrounding them
  31. Intracellular Fluids
    Fluid inside a cell
  32. Extracellular Fluids
    Fluid outside a cell
  33. Interstitial Fluids
    Extracellular fluid that fills the space between cells
  34. Blood Plasma
    Extracellular fluid within blood vessels
  35. Lymph
    Extracellular fluid inside lymphatic vessels
  36. Cerebrospinal Fluid
    Extracellular fluid in and around the brain and spinal cord
  37. synovial fluid
    Extracellular fluid inside joints
  38. feedback systems
    Cycle in which a body codition is continously monitored, evaluated, and changed continously
  39. stimulus
    Any disruption that changes a controlled variable
  40. receptor
    body structure that monitors a controlled condition and send input to control center
  41. control center
    Sets the range of values that a controlled condition should be kept in
  42. effector
    Receives output from control center and produces a response that changes the controlled condition
  43. Negative Feedback systems
    Reverses a change in a controlled condition
  44. positive feedback systems
    Reinforces a change in a controlled condition
  45. disorder
    Any abnormality of structure or function
  46. disease
    illness characterized by recognizable set of signs and symptoms
  47. symptoms
    subjective changes in body function not apparent to outside obse
  48. signs
    objective changes that can be observed and measured
  49. anatomical position
    standard position of reference used for describing the human bod
  50. Prone
    Face Down
  51. Supine
    Face up
  52. Cranial
    Skull
  53. Facial
    Face
  54. Sephalic
    Head
  55. Cervical
    neck
  56. Frontal
    forehead
  57. Orbital
    eye
  58. otic
    ear
  59. Buccal
    cheek
  60. Nasal
    nose
  61. oral
    mouth
  62. metal
    chin
  63. sternal
    sternum
  64. axillary
    armpit
  65. brachial (arm)
    armpit
  66. Antecubital
    front of elbow
  67. antebrachial
    forearm
  68. carpal
    wrist
  69. palmar
    palm
  70. digital(phalanges)
    fingers
  71. mammary
    breast
  72. umbilical
    naval
  73. coxal
    hip
  74. inguinal
    groin
  75. manual
    hand
  76. pubis
    pubis
  77. femoral
    thigh
  78. patellar
    anterior surface of the knee
  79. crural
    leg
  80. tarsal
    ankle
  81. pedal
    foot
  82. dorsum
    top of foot
  83. plantar
    sole
  84. calcaneal
    heel
  85. sural
    calf
  86. popliteal
    hollow behind the knee
  87. gluteal
    buttox
  88. lumbar
    loin
  89. sacral
    between the hips
  90. dorsal
    back
  91. olecranal
    back of the elbow
  92. vetebral
    spinal colum
  93. scapular
    shoulder blade
  94. acromial
    shoulder
  95. occipital
    base of skull
  96. upper extremity (limb)
    Shoulder, armpit, arm, forearm, wrist, and hand
  97. lower extremity (limb)
    buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot
  98. superior
    Towards the upper part of the body
  99. inferior
    Towards the lower part of the body
  100. anterior
    Towards the front of the body
  101. posterior
    Towards the back of the body
  102. medial
    Closer to midline
  103. lateral
    Farther from midline
  104. intermediate
    Between two structure
  105. ipsilateral
    On the same side of the body as another structure
  106. contralateral
    On the opposite side of the body from another structure
  107. proximal
    Nearer to the origin of a structure or attachment of a limb
  108. distal
    Farther away from origin of a structure or limbs attachment
  109. superficial
    Toward or on the surface of the body
  110. deep
    Away from the surface of the body
  111. cortical
    anything involving the cerebral cortex
  112. mediullary
    relating to the medulla of any body part, containing conisiting of or resembling bone marrow
  113. parietal
    of or relating to the walls of a part or a cavity, relating to or forming the upper posterior wall of the head
  114. visceral
    inner layer of a bursa or tissue the lines the outer surface of a enveloped structure
  115. sagittal plane
    Vertical plane that divides object into right and left sides
  116. midsagittal plane
    Vertical plane that divides object into right and left sides equally
  117. median plane
    See Midsagittal plane
  118. parasagittal plane
    Vertical plane that divides objects into right and left sides unequally
  119. transverse plane
    divides body into or organ into inferior and superior portions
  120. oblique plane
    Passes through body or organ at oblique angle
  121. frontal (coronal) plane
    Divides object into anterior and posterior portions
  122. section
    Cut made along a plane
  123. dorsal body cavity
    located on the dorsal surface of the human body it is subdivided into the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity
  124. ventral body cavity
    located on the anterior surface of the human body made up of the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
  125. cranial cavity
    Formed by cranial bones and contains brain
  126. vertebral cavity
    Formed by vertebral column contains spinal cord and beginning of spinal nerves
  127. meninges
    the three membranes (Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater) that line the skull and vertebral canal housing the brain and spinal cord
  128. thoracic cavity
    Chest cavity, contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinium
  129. pericardial cavity
    Surrounds heart
  130. pleural cavity
    each surrounds a lung
  131. mediastinum
    Central portion of thoracic cavity extends from sternum to vertebral column and from first rib to diaphragm, contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels
  132. diaphragm
    dome shaped muscle that separates thoracic and abdomino pelvic cavity
  133. abdominopelvic cavity
    extends from diaphragm to pelvic floor and is enclosed by the abdominal walland bones/muscle of the pelvis
  134. abdominal cavity
    contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine and most of large intestine
  135. Pelvic cavity
    contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, internal organs of the reproductive system
  136. serous membrane
    parietal layer lines the wall of the body cavity
  137. pleurae
    a pair of serous membranes lining the thorax and covering the lungs
  138. pericardium
    membrane enclosing the hear made up of a outer fibrous layer and an inner double layer of serous membrane
  139. peritoneum
    serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering abdominal organs

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