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- An intact (open) airway
- Normal respiratory rate
- Normal rise and fall of the chest
- Normal respiratory rhythm
- Breath sounds that are present bilaterally
- Chest expansion and relaxation that occurs normally
- Minimal-to-absent use of accessory muscles to aid in breathing
- Normal mental status
- Normal muscle tone
- Normal pulse oximeter reading >94%
- Normal skin condition findings
- Increased width of the space between the alveoli and blood vessels
- Lack of perfusion of the pulmonary capillaries from the right ventricle of the heart
- Filling of the alveoli with fluid, blood, or pus
A high-pitched, musical, whistling sound that is best heard initially on exhalation but may also be heard during inhalation in more severe cases
- It is an indication of swelling and constriction of the inner lining of the bronchioles.
- Usually heard in asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis
Snoring or rattling noises
- They indicate obstruction of the larger conducting airways of the respiratory tract by thick secretions of mucus.
- Often heard in chronic bronchitis, emphysema, aspiration, and pneumonia
Crackles or Rales
Bubbly or crackling sounds heard during inhalation.
- Associated with fluid that has surrounded or filled the alveoli or very small bronchioles.
- May indicate pulmonary edema or pneumonia
Decreased oxygen in the bloodstream typically defined as an SpO2 reading <94%
Shortness of breath
Complete respiratory arrest in which the patient is no longer breathing
The cells of the body are not getting an adequate supply of oxygen
Significant narrowing of the bronchioles of the lower airway from inflammation, swelling, or constriction of the muscle layer
Medication designed to dilate the bronchioles, which results in an increase in the effectiveness of breathing and relief from the signs and symptoms
Factors of Dyspnea
- Mechanical disruption to the airway, lung, or chest wall
- Stimulation of the receptors in the lungs
- Inadequate gas exchange at the level of the alveoli and capillaries
Increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood
Difficulty breathing but adequate tidal volume and respiratory rate
Respiratory tidal volume or rate is no longer able to provide adequate ventilatory effort
When the breathing effort ceases completely
A permanent disease process distal to the terminal bronchiole that is characterized by destruction of the alveolar walls and distention of the alveolar sacs and a gradual destruction of the pulmonary capillary beds with a severe reduction in the alveolar/capillary area for gas exchange to occur. Lung tissue loses elasticity
A disease process that affects primarily the bronchi and bronchioles. Characterized by a productive cough that persists for at least three consecutive months a year for at least two consecutive years
Characterized by an increased sensitivity of the lower airways to irritants and allergens, causing bronchospasms
Primarily an acute infectious disease caused by bacterium or a virus that affects the lower respiratory tract and causes lung inflammation and fluid or pus-filled alveoli
Sudden blockage of blood flow through a pulmonary artery or one of its branches. Usually caused by a blood clot.
Acute Pulmonary Edema
Occurs when an excessive amount of fluid collects in the spaces between the alveoli and the capillaries. Disturbs normal gas exchange
Sudden rupture of a portion of the visceral lining of the lung, not caused by trauma, that causes the lung to partially collapse
Anxious and experiences the feeling of not being able to catch his breath.
The epiglottis, area around the epiglottis, and base of the tongue become infected causing inflammation and swelling
Whooping cough; a respiratory disease characterized by uncontrolled coughing
An abnormal gene alters the functioning of the mucous glands lining the respiratory system and there is an overabundant production of mucus
A decrease of pulse strength during inhalation