Grammar

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Author:
Gavinoneill
ID:
263819
Filename:
Grammar
Updated:
2014-02-27 02:56:10
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Grammar terms
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Description:
Swan's Practical English
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  1. Adverb Particle
    a word used as part of a phrasal verb
  2. Agent
    the expression that says who did it in a passive sentence
  3. Adverbial
    a group of words that act as an adverb
  4. Assertive forms
    Some/somebody
  5. Attributive position
    Adjectives placed before nouns
  6. Clause
    A part of a sentence usually containing a subject and a verb
  7. Complement
    • a part of a sentence that gives information about the subject (after be, seem, and some other verbs), or in some structures about the object.
    • Structures or words needed after a noun, adjective, verb or preposition
  8. Co-ordinate clause
    one of two or more clauses of equal value
  9. Dangling/hanging/misrelated participle
    a participle which does not have a subject in the sentence
  10. Ellipsis
    leaving out words when their meaning can be understood from context
  11. Emphatic pronoun
    a reflexive used to emphasize the noun or pronoun
  12. Fronting
    moving important information to the front of the sentence
  13. Genitive
    the form of a noun made with 's or s', often used to shoe possession
  14. Identifying relative clause
    a relative clause which identifies the noun it refers to
  15. Inversion
    a structure in which a verb (or part of a verb) comes before its subject
  16. Subordinate clause
    acts like a part of the main clause - like a subject, object or adverbial
  17. Mid-position
    an adverb between the subject and the verb
  18. Modify
    an adjective/adverb is said to modify the noun/verb
  19. Nominal relative clause
    a relative clause (usually introduced by what) which acts like the subject, object or complement of the sentence
  20. Non-assertive form
    any/anyone
  21. Non-identifying relative clause
    a clause which does not identify the noun it refers to (because it is already known)
  22. Noun phrase
    a group of words (e.g. article + adjective + noun) which acts as a subject, object or complelemt
  23. Participle clause
    a clause-like structure which contains a participle, not a finite verb form e.g. discouraged by his failure, he resigned
  24. Postmodifier
    a word which comes after the word it modifies
  25. Predicative position
    adjectives placed after a verb like be, seem, look are in predicative position
  26. Premodifier
    a word the comes before the noun it modifies
  27. Preparatory subject/object
    when the subject of a sentence is an infinitive or a clause, we usually put it toward the end of the sentence and use the pronoun it as a preparatory subject or object in some cases
  28. Progressive infintive
    e.g. to be going etc.
  29. Reinforcement tag
    a tag which repeats the meaning of the subject and verb
  30. Relative pronoun
    a relative pronoun is used to repeat the meaning of the previous noun; at the same time, it connects  relative clause to the rest of the sentence (so it acts a s a conjunction too)
  31. Split infintive
    a structure in which an adverb comes between to and the bare infinitive
  32. Mr
    Mr.
    • UK
    • US
  33. about vs. on
    about means to be generally discussing. on means to deal with in an academic sense
  34. Adjective order before nouns
    • 1) numbers
    • 2) attitudes
    • 3) size, length and height often come first
    • 4) C-color
    •     O-origin
    •     M-material
    •     P-urpose
  35. Adverb particles vs. prepositions
    • prepositions have objects e.g. in my office
    • adverb particles describe verbs e.g. go in
    • adverb particles join with verbs to make phrasal verbs
    • adverb particles are often used with  be e.g. you are back
  36. Which adverbs usually appear at the beginning of a sentence?
    • Connecting adverbs e.g. however
    • Time adverbs e.g. tomorrow
    • some negative adverbial expressions such as under no circumstances can go initial position with inverted word order e.g. are children allowed
  37. Which adverbs usually go in mid position?
    • focusing adverbs, e.g., he's even eaten a horse
    • adverbs of certainty and completeness, e.g., it will probably rain or  I've almost finished
    • adverbs of indefinite frequency, e.g., he often travels to America
    • adverbs of comment, e.g., I stupidly forgot my keys
    • adverbs of manner, e.g., he quickly got dressed
  38. Which adverbs go in end position?
    adverbs of manner/place/time, e.g., slowly, upstairs, this morning
  39. as vs. since vs. because
    • Used when the reason is already known or it is not the most important part of the sentence.
    • Because puts more focus on the reason

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