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a word used as part of a phrasal verb
the expression that says who did it in a passive sentence
a group of words that act as an adverb
Adjectives placed before nouns
A part of a sentence usually containing a subject and a verb
- a part of a sentence that gives information about the subject (after be, seem, and some other verbs), or in some structures about the object.
- Structures or words needed after a noun, adjective, verb or preposition
one of two or more clauses of equal value
a participle which does not have a subject in the sentence
leaving out words when their meaning can be understood from context
a reflexive used to emphasize the noun or pronoun
moving important information to the front of the sentence
the form of a noun made with 's or s', often used to shoe possession
Identifying relative clause
a relative clause which identifies the noun it refers to
a structure in which a verb (or part of a verb) comes before its subject
acts like a part of the main clause - like a subject, object or adverbial
an adverb between the subject and the verb
an adjective/adverb is said to modify the noun/verb
Nominal relative clause
a relative clause (usually introduced by what) which acts like the subject, object or complement of the sentence
Non-identifying relative clause
a clause which does not identify the noun it refers to (because it is already known)
a group of words (e.g. article + adjective + noun) which acts as a subject, object or complelemt
a clause-like structure which contains a participle, not a finite verb form e.g. discouraged by his failure, he resigned
a word which comes after the word it modifies
adjectives placed after a verb like be, seem, look are in predicative position
a word the comes before the noun it modifies
when the subject of a sentence is an infinitive or a clause, we usually put it toward the end of the sentence and use the pronoun it as a preparatory subject or object in some cases
e.g. to be going etc.
a tag which repeats the meaning of the subject and verb
a relative pronoun is used to repeat the meaning of the previous noun; at the same time, it connects relative clause to the rest of the sentence (so it acts a s a conjunction too)
a structure in which an adverb comes between to and the bare infinitive
about vs. on
about means to be generally discussing. on means to deal with in an academic sense
Adjective order before nouns
- 1) numbers
- 2) attitudes
- 3) size, length and height often come first
- 4) C-color
Adverb particles vs. prepositions
- prepositions have objects e.g. in my office
- adverb particles describe verbs e.g. go in
- adverb particles join with verbs to make phrasal verbs
- adverb particles are often used with be e.g. you are back
Which adverbs usually appear at the beginning of a sentence?
- Connecting adverbs e.g. however
- Time adverbs e.g. tomorrow
- some negative adverbial expressions such as under no circumstances can go initial position with inverted word order e.g. are children allowed
Which adverbs usually go in mid position?
- focusing adverbs, e.g., he's even eaten a horse
- adverbs of certainty and completeness, e.g., it will probably rain or I've almost finished
- adverbs of indefinite frequency, e.g., he often travels to America
- adverbs of comment, e.g., I stupidly forgot my keys
- adverbs of manner, e.g., he quickly got dressed
Which adverbs go in end position?
adverbs of manner/place/time, e.g., slowly, upstairs, this morning
as vs. since vs. because
- Used when the reason is already known or it is not the most important part of the sentence.
- Because puts more focus on the reason
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