crim justice final 1

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  1. ancient era's law enforcement
    • in pre-civilized villages, rudimentary and informal systems of rules and sanctions were used
    • kin policing
    • theocratic institutions for appeals, sanctuary- not justice (churches teach what is right or wrong)
    • in rising city-states, police function was tied to military, especially in times of war
    • first organized police force- Roman Vigiles
    • praetorian guard, fire brigades, day forces, night forces
    • breaking into small parts
  2. first organized police force
    roman vigiles
  3. middle age's law enforcement
    • formal systems of law enforcement lost; replaced with either absence of law enforcement measures or one or two systems
    • gendarme system
    • tithing system
    • pledge system
  4. gendarme systems
    agents of the French crown that traveled from place to place to administer judges
  5. tithing system
    • 400-1066 (Norman Conquest)
    • people looked out for themselves
    • tithings= 10 families who looked out for each other. self-governed.
  6. pledge system
    • 1066-1600
    • after the norman conquest, ten tithings were organized into a "hundred", supervised by a constable (appointed by a landowner)
    • ten hundreds organized into a "shire", supervised by a "shire-reeve" (local representative of the Norman royalty)
    • local bailiffs and traveling royal judges would administer justice
    • english countryside broken into parishes
    • constables and "watch system" eventually replace shire-reeves
  7. english reforms
    • watch systems (constables in day, watchmen at night)
    • thief takers, bounty hunters
    • prompted by rampant crime in English cities, more professional methods of policing are introduced
    • bow street runners (1750)
    • london metropolitan police force (1829)
  8. london metropolitan police force
    • important first MODERN model
    • 1829
    • founded by Sir Robert Peel as the first professional police force in response to growing crime and corruption
    • wore uniforms, had hierarchy of command, were "armed" (nightsticks, flashlights, and rattle), very visible to public ("bobbies", "peelers")
  9. what was the first modern model?
    london metropolitan police force
  10. four major principles of london metropolitan police force
    • 1. discipline. were able to follow orders
    • 2. appearance. regulations on cleanliness. professional
    • 3. recruitment. people with a skill set. selective.
    • 4. visibility. need to be seen.
  11. colonial era (1600 CE-1800 CE)
    • initially US adopts English watch system
    • -hue and cry system used in outlying system
    • -cities and towns had either a sheriff or constables to organize watchmen and volunteers
    • -many areas responsible for policing themselves
    • had problems
  12. three main problems of early american policing (colonial area)
    • limited authority and legitimacy problems
    • decentralized control (too much local variation, no central authority figure)
    • fragmentation (one hand doesn't know what the other is doing)
  13. spoils era (1800-1900)
    • urban race riots lead to acceptance of peelian model in US
    • -first full time, salaried police force appeared in NYC in 1845, called "coppers" for the badges they wore
    • -state and federal police agencies begin to appear around this time, including texas rangers, pennsylvania constabulatory, postal inspectors, irs, pinkertons, etc
    • -use of slave patrols in the south was an informal form of "law enforcement"- but often brutal and not based on justice
    • -use of vigilante groups and posses in the west to supplement frontier justice (town marshals, sheriffs, etc)
  14. progressive era (1900-1920)
    • era of innovations and reforms
    • -pendleton act: passed in 1883, enforced in 1900, ended nepotism (hiring someone cause they're your brother or friend) and increased job security. ended spoils era.

    -international associations of chiefs of police, 1902. promotes information sharing between agencies, provides guidelines for recruitment and training, encourages professionalism performance and conduct. richard sylvester created this to better communicate between forces

    -focus on police professionalism and reform. august volmer

    -birth of police unions (FOP, AFSCME, Teamsters)

    -citizen group involvement in police reforms. chicago crime commission created reports on what officers were doing.
  15. gangster era (1920's-1950's)
    • -volstead act (1919): 18th amendment banning sale, production, distribution, and use of alcohol. repealed by 21st amendment in 1933. most agreed that prohibiton was a failed experiment
    • -great depression and unemployment
    • -rise in power of gangsters like Capone and Dillinger
    • -widespread police corruption
    • -rise of federal agent (J. Edgar Hoover)
    • -rise of the reformers and birth of american criminology (August Vollmer, O.W. Wilson)
  16. revoluntary era (1960's-1970's)
    • -crime fighter image, loss of foot patrols, aggressive crime control tactic
    • -intense social issues and a rising of crime rate. baby boomers are teens.
    • -government studies and reforms (LEAA) lead to changes in procedures and improved training
  17. modern era (1970's-present)
    -1970's: recruitment of minority officers, continued creation of the CJS education programs, police-community relations programs

    -1980's: introduction of community orientated policing; demise of the LEAA

    -1990's: rise of police unions, continued focus on eliminating corruption and building community relations

    -2000's: focus on homeland security and promoting vigilance (post 9/11); rapid technological advancements help enforcement, prevention, and investigation
  18. police jurisdiction
    jurisdiction refers generally to areas of responsibility
  19. operational jurisdiction
    • responsibilities and duties of police agencies, which may overlap traditional geographic boundaries
    • some agencies have small geographic areas of responsibility but large amounts of legitimate duties
    • NIU police
  20. geographical jurisdiction
    • geographic areas in which police agencies have primary control and authority
    • some agencies have large geographical areas, but small amounts of legitmate duties (FBI, secret service)
    • concurrent jurisdiction may exist, depending on the nature and location of the crimes
  21. federal law enforcement
    • military police
    • tribal police
    • federal civilian agencies
  22. military police
    • jurisidiction includes military bases (both US and abroad), certain federal lands, and cases involving military personnel
    • enforcement based on Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) rather than state or federal laws
    • enforcement done by both military personnel, such as Army's Criminal Investigative Division or civilian personnel, such as the Navy's Naval Criminal Investigation Service
  23. tribal police
    • agencies formed to provide police services on Native American resevations, which are considered soverign territories
    • rates of violent victimization are high (twice the national rate)
    • office of Tribal Justice established in 1995 to increase communications and help with jurisdictional problems
  24. federal civilian agencies
    -department of justice (federal bureau of investigation (FBI), US Marshals Service, Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives)

    -department of homeland security (US secret service, immigration and customs Enforcement)

    -other federal agencies (US postal service inspectors, Capital Hill Police)
  25. state law enforcement
    • highway patrol/state police
    • criminal investigation divisions
  26. highway patrol/state police
    jurisdiction limited to enforcing the traffic laws and promoting safety on interstate highways and primary and secondary roads of the state (aka state troopers)
  27. criminal investigation divisions
    • investigation of statewide crimes, or crimes in areas that are not patrolled or underpatrolled by other forces, such as unincorporated areas
    • may also investigate crimes involving other police agencies, or in case where there may be bias
  28. county law enforcement
    • jurisdiction includes all county areas and may overlap with municipal police
    • chief agent is county sheriff, an elected position which is largely administrative; may or may not require law enforcement background, training, or experience
    • assisted by sheriffs deputies who are selected based on examinations that test law enforcement knowledge, skills, and abilities
    • duties include law enforcement in county-controlled areas, court security, serving warrants, and maintenance of county jail facilities
  29. local law enforcement
    • jurisdiction is generally limited to the city limits, with few exceptions
    • -metropolice: departments that have inter-jurisdictional agreements with surrounding communities or agencies. ex: L.A., Las Vegas

    • each incorporated town/city has the right to establish a police department, although not all do
    • -some areas rely on part time officers, county or state services
    • -most local police departments serve populations of 25k or less and employ fewer than 50 officers
  30. special purpose police
    • special purpose police are sworn officers that have limited or targeted jurisdiction which may cross traditional geographic boundaries
    • ex: university police, transit police
  31. private police forces
    • private police forces may not be sworn officers; serve a security, nonarrest function
    • armored car services, mall security, bodyguards, etc
    • may act as an intermediary for official police forces
    • generally do not have arrest capabilities, but may be able to temporarily detain suspected offenders
  32. functions of the police
    • order maintenance function (proactive)
    • law enforcement function (reactive)
  33. order maintenance functioning (proactive)
    preventative patrol: patrolling a designated "beat" in an unpredictable manner

    directed patrol: targeting known or suspected "hot spots" of criminal activity

    problem orientated policing: identifying and addressing the underlying causes of crime, such as social problems
  34. law enforcement function (reactive)
    • criminal investigation
    • -differential response: prioritizing how police respond to calls for service, and how calls for service are made

    preparing case for court
  35. education and training for police
    • most municipal police departments require at least some college education; need not always be in a related field
    • all police departments require additional specialized training (police academy, field training officers/on the job training, continuing education and certification programs)
    • time in rank system for advancement
  36. benefits of better educated officers include:
    improved communication skills, improved writing skills, increased tolerance, less disciplinary problems and complaints
  37. minority officers
    • historical job limitations and segregation/discrimination
    • double marginality
  38. double marginality
    • social burden of being both a member of a minority group and a police officer
    • both nonminority officers and the public assume minority officers would favor individuals of their same minority group
    • alienated minorities who felt betrayed
    • alienated nonminorities who felt like it was only for show
    • alienated other officers for showing bias
  39. female officers
    • historical job restrictions
    • job performance
    • -gender stereotypes
    • -sexual harrassment
    • -seen as a threat by spouses of male officers
    • defeminization
  40. defeminization
    • when female officers sacrifice their feminine identity to be accepted into the police profession
    • female officers who retain their femininity may not be taken seriously, or may be seen as a threat
    • female officers who abandon their femininity to be "one of the guys" maybe viewed as trying too hard or be labeled as gay
  41. problem: the police subculture
    • "blue curtain" or "thin blue line": the invisible line that separates police from general public
    • common elements of police subculture: stress, social isolation and suspicion, protective of fellow officers, change in personality over time
  42. problem: police discretion
    • the use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out the operations of the criminal justice system
    • low visibility decision making: unregulated police discretion and part of an officer's daily routine
  43. problem: corruption revisited
    • knapp comission: investigated corruption in NYPD in 1970's
    • two types of corrupt officers: meat eaters and grass eaters
  44. meat eaters
    • police officers engaged in active corruption
    • ex: soliciting bribes, stealing, abusing suspects
  45. grass eaters
    • police officers engaged in passive corruption
    • ex: officers who accept payoffs, free gifts, etc
  46. internal corruption
    • violation of departmental policies/procedures
    • padding time card
  47. selective/nonenforcement
    abuse of discretion, overlooking offenses
  48. active criminality
    using status as officer to engage in criminal behavior
  49. bribery and extortion
    using status as officer to obtain money or benefits
  50. bribery
    initiated by someone else
  51. extortion
    initiated by officer
Card Set:
crim justice final 1
2014-03-29 07:24:30
crim justice

crim justice
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