Micro - Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells (Ch4)

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  1. Both Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic contain what?
    Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates

    Both metabolize food, build proteins, and store energy the same
  2. Prokaryotic cells
    • No nucleus 
    • Lack membrane inbound organelles 
    • Almost all cell walls contain polysaccharide peptidoglycan 
    • Binary fission
  3. Eukaryotic cells
    • Contain nucleus 
    • Contain membrane bound organelles 
    • Many with just cell membranes 
    • When cell walls are present, they are typically chemically simple 
    • Mitosis
  4. 3 basic shapes of Prokaryotes
    • Bacillus (rod-shaped)
    • Coccus (Spherical shaped)
    • Spiral
  5. Morphology
    Study of shape/structure
  6. 3 types of arrangements of prokaryotes
    • Diplo - Pairs 
    • Staphylo- Clusters
    • Strepto- Chains
  7. Glycocalyx
    Gelatinous external layer made of polysaccharide and polypeptide 

    • two types:Slime layer (loosely packed)
    • Capsule (highly packed)
  8. Functions of Glycocalyx
    Protection from- Dehydration, nutrient loss, phagocytic recognition, Digestion, chemicals (Anti-biotics, disinfectants)
  9. What are the 3 parts of prokaryotic flagellum
    • Filament - The long outermost region
    • Hook - Slightly wider part of the flagellum
    • Basal body - Anchors flagellum  to cell membrane
  10. 4 arrangements of bacterial flagella
    • Monotrichous - Single flagella 
    • Lophotrichous - multiple flagella from one pole
    • Amphitrichous - Flagella from both pole of cell
    • Peritrichous - Distributed flagella over entire cell
  11. What are Motile cells?
    Cells with flagella that have the ability to rotate, run or tumble(abrupt changes)
  12. Axial Filaments
    • aka endoflagella
    • Rotation of the filaments produce movement of the outer sheath that propels the spriocehetes
  13. Fimbriae
    • Can occur at pole of cell of evenly distributed 
    • Involved in forming biofilms
  14. Pilli
    • Longer and less numerous than fimbriae 
    • Involved in motility and DNA transfer
    • Twitching motility and gliding motility
  15. Bacterial cell wall
    • Surrounds cell membrane 
    • Contributes to shape and structure 
    • Protects from hypotonic environment
    • Made of peptidoglycan
  16. Gram positive cell walls (2 parts)
    • Teichoic acids
    • Antigenic
  17. Antigenic
    • Found in the cell wall of gram positive cells 
    • Any chemical or substance that elicits or provokes an immune response
  18. A typical cell wall
    • Cell wall made of 60% mycolic acid (sticky or waxy)
    • Resist antibiotics, phagocytic digestion, dehydration, 
    • Survive up to 6 months
  19. What type of cell has an a typical cell wall?
    • Mycobacterium
    • M. leprae - Leporsey
    • M. tuberculosis - TB
  20. Which bacteria has NO cell wall
    • Mycoplasma 
    • M. pneumoniae - Walking pneumonia
  21. Pleomorphic cells
    • Lacks cell wall (Variable shapes)
    • Sensitive to hypotonicity and dehydration 
    • Worlds smallest bacteria
    • Resist anti cell wall antibiotics
  22. Functions of plasma membrane
    • Selectively permeable boundry
    • ATP production
  23. Fluid mosaic membrane
    • Viscous as olive oil
    • Proteins move to function
    • Phospholipids rotate and move laterally
  24. Cytoplasm
    Substance inside the cell
  25. The nucleoid
    • No nucleus 
    • A circular, double stranded chromosome (DNA)
  26. Ribosomes
    The site of ATP synthesis
  27. Prokaryotic Ribosome
    • 30s small subunit
    • 50s large unit
    • =complete 70s ribosome

    Protein synthesis 
  28. Endospores
    • Gram (+)
    • Sporulation (formation)
    • Germination (Vegetative state)
    • Survive adverse environments

Card Set Information

Micro - Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells (Ch4)
2014-02-25 07:36:59
Micro chap 4
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