philosophy kant all

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misol
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philosophy kant all
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2014-02-25 09:28:07
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philosophy kant
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  1. Common criticism about Kant
    too rigorous and doesn't allow for exceptions
  2. 1. Formula of universal law
    you CAN lie, why?
    • If you know a liar is lying, you can lie b/c they are expecting you're telling the truth
    • universal lying to a liar b/c he expects the truth which is why he's lying
  3. 2. Formula of humanity and kingdom of ends

    autonomy is so important to kant and lying violates that
    • parent and child
    • child wants to "borrow" money but reality is just wants money
    • parent agrees to child because they know the end and share the same end
  4. 3. How to deal with evil 
    Double - level theory
    king of ends is ideal BUT people involved/reality isn't ideal
  5. kingdom of ends (ideal) vs reality (not ideal)

    scenario: affirmative action
    • KOE - doesn't have discrimination
    • Reality - has discrimination

    Affirmative action - this is discrimination, BUT is necessary to bring about good and is guided by the KOE ideal.
  6. kingdom of ends (ideal) vs reality (not ideal)

    scenario: lying
    prioritize rules
    • Reality - Murderer at the door
    • KOE - no murderers 

    • options: 1. be honest (person dies)
    •              2.shoot them (further from ideal)
    •          **3.lie (closest to ideal) so pick this one
  7. Ground of obligation
    must come from something a priori (rational) and not experience
  8. Lying for a good reason, lie back?
    no...
  9. conform to moral law why?
    b/c of inclination vs duty
  10. Wolff Psycology
    lump duty together, but can't differentiate between empirical (experience) and rational (reason)
  11. what serves as principle for moral law?
    Moral law itself
  12. Theoretical to Practical reason
    • common reason is good at practical reason easily led astray by life (feelings and inclinations)
    • so philosophy gives us more objective
  13. Democratic ideal and korsgaard
    based on autonomy and rational freedom
  14. Look at different examples 
    Ex 1
         2
         3
         4
    • Moral principle within those that makes moral
    • Moral principle isn't derived from those examples
  15. Two types of imperatives
    hypothetical and categorical
  16. Hypothetical imperative
    • desired outcome/goal (bring about end desire)
    • If ___ then ___ = structure
    • ie if I want to be a good piano player, then I must practice (only applies to piano players
  17. Categorical Imparetive
    • Duty in itself
    • necessary no matter what for ALL and good within itself
  18. Categorical Imperatives 2 parts
    • Formula of Universal Law
    • Formula of Humanity
  19. Formula of universal law

    perfect
    • necessary w/o personal input, obligatory
    • 1. ourselves (don't kill yourself)
    • 2. others (don't lie)
  20. formula of universal law

    imperfect
    • necessary but can have personal input
    • 3. ourselves (develop your talents)
    • 4. others (help others)

    can't help everyone but use personal impute to decide who to help
  21. lying and categorical imperative
    when you universalize lying, it becomes impossible and purpose you have in lying is contradicting and inconsistent (ie promise to return money)
  22. Formula of humanity
    when violate this formula, you take away their right to choose/take away their choice
  23. formula of humanity states
    Act in such a way that you treat humanity (being/rational) always that the same time as an end (subject, self ruled), never merely (just/only) as a means
  24. formula of universal law states
    act only on maxim by which you can at the same will that it should become a universal law
  25. why is lying so bad?
    • 1. when I lie to a person, that person doesn't agree to how they're being treated b/c they don't know
    • 2. that person doesn't share the end of action
  26. false promise = treating like ATM
    the word promise is like the PIN
  27. Kingdom of Ends (thought experiment)
    • Ideal Community 
    • systematic union of rational beings guided by the moral law 
    • members are both sovereign (make rules) and subject (follows rules)
  28. key to remember in kingdom of ends
    if something can be willed in the kingdom of ends, it is MORAL b/c you had to follow the rules you make
  29. In kingdom, something either has dignity or price
    • dignity - CAN'T be replaced
    • price - it CAN be replaced
  30. Why humans have dignity?
    b/c we have autonomy

    • something is moral if it is compatible with autonomy 
    • something is immoral if it violates autonomy
  31. Heteronomy and Autonomy
    • Heteronomy - ruled by anything OTHER than reason (ie feelings, what others say, etc)
    • Autonomy - govered by REASON
  32. Two Key Ideas
    • 1. Seek out and establish supreme principle of morality (The Categorical Imperative)
    • 2. Moral philosophy be should be pure (w/o feeling or experience or inclination. Solely based on reason/ a priori/rational
  33. The Categorical Imperative
    • formula of universal law
    • formula of humanity
  34. Metaphysics of Morals
    • 1. Material
    • 2. Formal
  35. Metaphysics of Morals
    1. Material
    • Based on experience 
    • ie practical anthropology 
    • tell us what people believe about morality (inclination)
  36. Metaphysics of morals
    2. Formal
    • NOT based on experience
    • Is moral philosophy
    • tells us what we SHOULD do and how we SHOULD act (obligation. Do what's right b/c it's right)
  37. Two types of Good
    • 1. appears moral (conforms to moral law, inclination.)
    • 2. is moral and done for the sake for moral law (obligation) thus has moral worth
  38. Scenario: steal old lady's purse
    • if natural desire to help is character = contingent
    • if acted upon rational obligation thought through ish = stable
  39. Good Will
    • intrinsic value, good in itself
    • good even when bad outcomes ensue
  40. Gift of fortune and nature
    what makes this good?
    • fortune - power, wealth
    • nature - character traits, genetics
    • have no intrinsic value 

    • scenario - villain is handsome, wealthy, intelligent
    • instrumental value is good based on HOW we use them
  41. goodwill gem story
    • dirty gem represent bad outcome (don't see value immediately so don't know the true worth)
    • clean gem represent good outcome (see value immediately)
  42. Happiness and Reason
    reason does not exist to make you happy, it's there to make you moral (produce a goodwill)
  43. Moral Worth and Duty
    shop keeper scenario
    A - honest b/c of selfish motive (business will suffer if he doesn't). Only appears moral thus lacks moral worth

    B - duty to be honest. Is moral thus has moral worth
  44. Moral Worth and Duty
    suicide scenario
    • A - non suicidal, don't kill yourself b/c has everything (inclination) 
    • B - non suicidal, don't kill yourself even in Job like situation, HAS moral worth
  45. when you remove all inclination. what's left is moral law itself
    moral law = never act in such a way that I could not will that my maxim should not become a universal law
  46. Duty gives action moral worth
    supreme principle of morality = categorical imperative = formula of universal law
  47. Lying 
    prudence (no moral worth)
    • more convenient to lie than tell the truth
    • how will the lie benefit me? if lie can benefit me, tell it. If not, don't lie (utility)

    • Reason based on prudence (human nature)
    • morality shouldn't be that fickle
  48. Lying 
    Duty (categorical imperative)
    • If I universalize lying (as in other people know I am. loan story) then lying becomes impossible. Promising would cease to exist if lying was universalized.
    • Inconsistency and contradiction (when you lie and it's universalized, it contradicts the purpose of lying)

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