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What is an attitude?
- A stable positive or negative evaluation of some person, object, or issue
- *potential to influence social thought and behavior
- *learned over time
- *involved good/bad evaluations
-about a particular object
What are the ABCs of attitudes?
- Ex) Attitude object for voting
- -Feelings of involvement in an upcoming election-affect
- -intentions to vote-behavioral tendency
- -knowledge about where to vote-cognitions
Which method do we use to learn people's attitudes?
- -direct measurement
- *asking people to report their attitudes
- *scales and surveys
What can be a potential problem for using direct measurement to learn people's attitudes? (2)
-unwilling to unable to report true attitude
- -social desirability
- *trying to present a favorable impression
Study on "Are people willing to be direct about sharing their attitudes?" What was the conclusion?
More people confessed to using the cheating strategy when hooked up to the bogus pipeline than self reporting it.
What is an indirect strategy for measuring attitudes on people?
Disguised self reports
What are 2 types of disguised self reports?
- -implicit associates test
- *reaction time and errors to good/bad associations
How do we acquire attitudes? (4)
- *classical conditioning, Operant conditioning, modeling
- *cognitive dissonance
What is the cognitivist perspective on people's attitudes?
- People form attitudes according to a rational thoughtful process
- *when asking someone why they like something, we expect them to tell us their beliefs.
Cognitivist perspective- how do we change people's attitudes?
We have to change their beliefs
emotivist perspective: Social learning perspective
Attitudes are learned through positive and negative associations
Under emotivist perspective, social learning perspective, how are rewards and punishments associated by?
Rewards= positive attitudes
punishments= negative attitudes
Learning perspectives) Classical conditioning:
- Stimulus contingent learning
- *when a neutral stimulus is associated with a positive or negative event we learn positive or negative associations.
What is Operant conditioning?
- Response contingent learning
- *associate a response with a positive or negative reinforcement
- **press button and food appears
Research on Operant conditioning) Insko telephone survey conclusion
-when they gave students nonverbal reinforcers regarding in support of a tuition hike, more pro tuition hike statements made by this group even 2-3 weeks later
Observational learning- what is modeling?
- People acquire new forms of thought/behavior simply by observing others
- *kids often learn to do as their parents DO, not what they say
- **ex) smoking
Genetics studies- Twin studies
-greater similarity between monozygotic twins than dizygotic even when reared apart. The preferences were more associated with gut level attitudes than cognitive attitudes
What makes an attitude strong? (4)
-Fazio model of attitude accessibility
Fazio model of attitude accessibility) How is accessibility defined?
- How easily/rapidly will an attitude come to mind when shown attitude object
- *measured in reaction time
Fazio model of attitude accessibility) how is attitude activated? And how is behavior affected?
Attitude is activated when called to mind which leads to behavior being affected.
Accessibility) What is chronic?
Everyday attitude toward something
Accessibility) What is temporary?
Biased assimilation study: what was the result when there was low accessibility and high accessibility?
Low= no influence on rating of studies
high= rating of studies strongly biased by attitude
Conclusion on attitudes linked to behavior
- 90% of the same establishments said they would not welcome Chinese guests but in reality only the group was refused service once.
- **attitudes did not predict behavior very well
What is the formula of the theory of planned behavior? (3>1>1)
Attitude toward a behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control > intention > behavior
Implications for measurement) Greater attitude:
Behavior consistency when the attitude measured is specific to target rather than general
Ex) specific: attitude toward paper recycling on campus
General: environmental attitudes
Moral attitudes) moral mandates:
Attitude positions that people develop out of a moral conviction that something is right or wrong
*people intolerant of others who hold opposing moral positions
COnclusion of study Sitka, Bauman, saris
Person sat further away when they were morally motivated than when they only had an attitude.
Attitudes consist of? (3)
*if someone can change these 3 things from a person, they can change their attitude
What do persuasive messages try to do?
Generally try to change how people think about something
What 3 factors make messages persuasive?
- *attractiveness of communicator
- *quality of message
- *who is listening to the message