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How do babies physically develop from birth to age 1?
- They gain 50% of their height and weight
- gain "baby fat" until 9 months
How do infants physically develop from age 1 to age 2?
- They gain 72% of their weight
- after 9 months, the babies slim down
What are the two types of growth trends?
What does the cephalocaudal growth trend look like?
- "head to tail"
- Lower part of body grows later than the head
What does the proximodistal growth trend look like?
- "Near to far"
- Extremities grow later than the head, chest, and trunk
What is skeletal age?
- A measure of development of the bones of the body
- The best estimate of a child's physical maturity
How developed is the brain at birth?
- The brain is the closest to adult size than anything
- Baby brains have many neurons (brain cells that transmit and store info)
- Continued neuron development& growth
- Neuron growth & death
- -20-80% of neurons at birth will be gone within ___________
What is lateralization?
Specialization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain
Which method of processing information is the left hemisphere of the brain best at?
A sequential and analytic way
Which method of processing information is the right hemisphere of the brain best at?
A holistic and integrative manner
What are some examples of early extreme sensory deprivation?
- Not hearing sounds from people
- Not seeing new things
- Not touching and feeling things
- ***ALL OF THESE CAN CAUSE PERMANENT BRAIN DAMAGE!
Other than brain damage, what else can sensory deprivation cause?
it makes it hard for the individual to cope with stress
What are the two types of appropriate stimulation?
- Experience-expectant growth
- Experience-dependent growth
What is experience-expectant growth?
- Ordinary experiences that the brain expects/thinks should happen in order for it to grow
- ex: seeing new things; hearing music; moving about; etc.
- ***Occurs early and naturally!
What is experience-dependent growth?
- Specific experiences that vary from culture to culture
- ex: playing computer games; weaving a rug; learning to read/write; playing an instrument; etc.
- **Rushing early learning can OVERWHELM the brain
What are the factors that influence early growth?
- -Breast vs bottle feeding
- Emotional well-being
- -problems can cause failure to thrive
What are the benefits of breast feeding?
- Correct fat/protein balance
- Nutritionally complete
- Promotes healthy growth patterns
- Disease protection
- Better jaw and tooth development
- Ensures digestibility
- Easier transition to solid food
What are the four types of malnutrition?
- Iron-deficiency anemia
- Food insecurity
What are the consequences of malnutrition?
- Physical symptoms
- Growth & weight problems
- Poor motor development
- Learning and attention problems
- Passivity, irritability, anxiety
What are the causes and effects of kwashiorkor?
- Caused by an unbalanced diet that's particularly low in protein
- In the USA, it's mostly common in homeless people or people without stable living environments/incomes
- OR third-world countries where they only eat grains and beans
- -overall large swelling (protuberant belly)
- -poor wound healing
What are the causes and effects of marasmus?
- Caused by a diet low in all nutrients
- Usually seen in first year of life depending on when moms stop breastfeeding [can happen even if mom is breastfeeding if mom has marasmus too]
- -loose skin
- -prominent bones
- -decrease in sub-cutaneous feet
What is growth faltering?
- It applies to infants whose weight, height, and head circumference are all well below average
- Children with it are more withdrawn and apathetic, and it's lifelong for some
- It's often caused by a disturbed parent-child relationship [lack of maternal/paternal relationship with the child]
- ***NOT ALWAYS FROM NEGLECT
What is the dynamic systems theory?
- A specific set of beliefs regarding motor development
- Mastery of motor skills involves/requires the acquisition of increasingly complex systems of action
- We have to combine smaller skills in order to be able to do more complex skills
- Caused by:-development of CNS (central nervous system)
- -body's capacity to move
- -child's goals
- -environmental supports
When do infants become able to sense musical phrasing?
at 4-7 months
When do infants become able to "screen out" sounds from the non-native languages?
at 6-8 months
When do infants become able to divide the speech stream into word-line units?
at 7-9 months
When do infants become able to focus their vision and see colors?
at 2-4 months
When do infants' brains develop in acuity, scanning, and tracking?
at 6 months
When are infants able to perceive depth perception?
at 6-7 months
When do infants become sensitive to motion cues?
at birth-1 month
When do infants become sensitive to binocular cues?
at 2-3 months
When do infants become sensitive to pictorial cues and become wary of heights?
at 6-7 months
What is an example of motion sensitivity?
- If you're inside a moving car, then:
- -objects closer to the car seem to move faster
- -objects further from the car seem to move slower
What is binocular sensitivity?
- The realization that objects are 3 dimensional
- ex: put finger in front of face, view with each eye separately, it looks like the finger moved when it didn't
What is pictorial sensitivity?
- Sensitivity to:
- changes in texture
- overlapping objects
- horizon seems further away
- wary of heights (ex: visual cliff)
When can babies differentiate faces?
by 3 months
When can babies see facial expressions/emotions and treat different expressions differently?
by 5 months
What are schemes?
In Piaget's theory, a specific psychological structure, or organized way of making sense of experience, that changes with age
What are the two types of adaptation?
What is assimilation?
Using current schemes to interpret the external world
What is accommodation?
Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit the environment
What is the first substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor Theory?
- birth-1 month
- babies suck, grasp, and look (newborn reflexes)
- the "pavement" for development
What is the second substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor Theory?
- ~1 month
- gain voluntary control over movements
- often repeating circulatory reactions in order to get basic needs
What are circulatory reactions?
stumbling upon a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity
What is the third substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor Theory?
- 4-8 months
- infants sit up
- more skilled at reaching and manipulating objects
- more motor development
- secondary circulatory reactions (repeating because it's interesting)
What is the fourth substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor Theory?
- 8-12 months
- starting to combine schemes into more complex actions
- starting to see goal-directed behavior
- starting to solve problems
- A-not-B error
What is an example of goal-directed behavior?
crying for a diaper change (on purpose)
What is object permanence?
knowing an object is still there even if you can't see it
What is an example of A-not-B error?
- Put a toy under a blanket as the baby is watching
- Take the toy out and put it behind your back as the baby is watching
- The baby will look for the toy under the blanket anyway
What is the fifth substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor Theory?
- 12-18 months
- Accurate A-B search
- Further development of object permanence
- Tertiary circular reaction
What is tertiary circular reaction?
When toddlers repeat behaviors with variation
What is the sixth substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor Theory?
- 18-24 months
- Mental representations of things
What is the nativist development in language development?
- Proposed by Noam Chomsky
- -children are born with a language acquisition device (LAD) and it contains a universal grammar set
- Broca's area & Wernicke's area
What is Broca's area responsible for?
What is Wernicke's area responsible for?
What is the interactionist perspective in language development?
- Humans are prepared to acquire language
- Social environment plays an important role
- Language is carefully presented to children by the people around them
- Kids can't learn language only though tv and whatnot because they need physical interactions
What do babies do when they're getting ready to talk?
- Cooing and babbling
- They can recognize infant-directed speech [slower tempo, higher pitch, grammatically simple]
- Preverbal gestures
- Word comprehension
What does a baby's first word indicate?
- The first word is spoken for content; it's not random
- It's for a holophrastic use of words [one word for an entire phrase]
- Phonological limitations of early words
- Link between motor development and language
What is telegraphic speech?
Combining 2 words to make a phrase by taking out "useless" words
What is overextension?
Extending the meaning of the word beyond its normally accepted meaning
What is underextension?
Limiting the meaning of the word to a smaller meaning than the accepted meaning
What are the first two stages of Erikson's Stages?
- First year - basic trust vs mistrust
- Second year - autonomy vs shame and doubt
What do emotions play a big role in?
- Social relationships
- Willingness to explore our environment
- Discovering ourselves
What is the best way to figure out an infant/toddler's emotion?
Their facial expressions
What is the best way to assume an emotion?
- Look at all of the following:
- facial expressions
- the situation
When do babies first show happiness?
- Smile - from birth
- Social smile - 6-10 weeks
- Laugh - 3-4 months
When do babies first show anger?
- General distress - from birth
- Anger - 4-6 months
When do babies first show sadness?
Distressed to "still face" - 2-7 months
When do babies first show fear?
- First fears - 6-12 months
- Stranger anxiety - 8-12 months
What is emotional contagion and when does it first occur?
Some believe that we're born with a built-in automatic process of how to respond to others' emotions
When do babies start recognizing others' facial expressions?
At 5 months
What is social referencing?
- It's when we look to a secure base to determine the safety of an environment
- tone of voice is more powerful than facial expressions
What is intentional/goal-directed behavior?
A sequence of actions in which schemes are deliberately coordinated to solve a problem
What are mental representations?
- Internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate
- 2 kinds:
What is deferred imitation?
the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
What is the violation-of-expectation method?
- A method in which researchers show babies an expected event (one that is consistent with reality) and an unexpected event (a variation of the first event that violates reality)
- Heightened attention to the unexpected event suggests that the infant is "surprised" by a deviation from physical reality, and therefore is aware of that aspect of the physical world
What is displaced reference?
- the realization that words can be used to cue mental images of things not physically present
- usually emerges around first birthday
What are the cognitive attainments of an infant from birth to 1 month?
Secondary circular reactions using limited motor skills, such as sucking a nipple to gain access to interesting sights and sounds
What are the cognitive attainments of an infant from 1 month to 4 months?
- Awareness of object permanence, object solidity, and gravity, as suggested by violation-of-expectation findings
- Deferred imitation of an adult's facial expression over a short delay (one day)
What are the cognitive attainments of an infant from 8 months to 12 months?
- Ability to search for a hidden object when covered by a cloth
- Ability to solve simple problems by analogy to a previous problem
What are the cognitive attainments of an infant from 4 months to 8 months?
- Improved knowledge of object permanence and basic numeral knowledge, as suggested by violation-of-expectation findings
- Deferred imitation of an adult's novel actions on objects over a short delay (one to three days)
What are the cognitive attainments of an infant from 12 months to 18 months?
- Ability to search in several locations for a hidden object when a hand deposits it under a cloth and when it is moved from one location to another (accurate A-B search)
- Deferred imitation of an adult's novel actions on an object over a long delay (at least several months) and across a change in situation (from child care to home)
- Rational imitation, inferring the model's intentions
- Displaced reference of words
What are the cognitive attainments of an infant from 18 months to 2 years?
- Deferred imitation of actions an adult tries to produce, eve if these are not fully realized, again indicating a capacity to iner others' intentions
- Imitation of everyday behaviors in make-believe play
- Beginning awareness of pictures and video as symbols of reality
What is the core knowledge perspective?
A perspective that states that infants are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought, each of which permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition
What is the zone of proximal/potential development?
The range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners
What is the difference between an intelligence quotient and a developmental quotient?
- An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a score that permits an individual's performance on an intelligence test to be compared to the performances of other individuals of the same age
- A developmental quotient (DQ) is a score on an intelligence test, computed in the same manner as an IQ but labeled more conservatively because it does not tap the same dimensions of intelligence measured in older children
What are fontanels?
Six gaps, or "soft spots," separating the bones of the skull at birth
What is synaptic pruning?
Loss of synapses by seldom-stimulated neurons, a process that returns them to an uncommitted state so they can support future development
What are glial cells?
Cells that are responsible for myelination of neural fibers, improving the efficiency of message transfer and, in certain instances, also participate directly in neural communication
What is myelination?
The coating of neural fibers with myelin, an insulating fatty sheath that improves the efficiency of message transfer
What are epiphyses?
Growth centers at the ends of the long bones of the body, where new cartilage cells are produced and gradually harden
What are the methods for measuring brain functioning?
- Electroencephalogram (EEG)
- Event-related potential (ERP)
- Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
- Positron emission tomography (PET)
- Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)
How do electroencephalograms (EEGs) work?
- Electrodes embedded in a head cap record electrical brain-wave activity in the brain's outer layers - the cerebral cortex
- Researchers use an advanced tool called a geodesic sensor net (GSN) to hold interconnected electrodes (up to 128 for infants and 256 for children and adults) in place through a cap that adjusts to each person's head shape yielding improved brain-wave detection
How do event-related potentials (ERPs) work?
- Using the EEG, the frequency and amplitude of brain waves in response to particular stimuli (such as a picture, music, or speech) are recorded in the cerebral cortex
- Enables identification of general regions of stimulus -induced activity
How does functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) work?
- While the person lies inside a tunnel-shaped apparatus that creates a magnetic field, a scanner magnetically detects increased blood flow and oxygen metabolism in areas of the brain as the individual processes particular stimuli
- The scanner typically records images every 1 to 4 seconds; these are combined into a computerized moving picture of activity anywhere in the brain (not just its outer layers)
How does positron emission tomography (PET) work?
- After injection or inhalation of a radioactive substance, the person lies on an apparatus with a scanner that emits fine streams of X-rays, which detect increased blood flow and oxygen metabolism in areas of the brain as the person processes particular stimuli
- As with fMRI, the result is a computerized image of activity anywhere in the brain
How do near-infrared spectroscopies (NIRSs) work?
- Using thin, flexible optical fibers attached to the scalp through a head cap, infrared (invisible) light is beamed at the brain; its absorption by areas of the cerebral cortex varies with changes in blood flow and oxygen metabolism as the individual processes particular stimuli
- The result is a computerized moving picture of active areas in the cerebral cortex
- Unlike fMRI and PET, NIRS is appropriate for infants and young children, who can move within limited range during testing
What is the cerebral cortex?
The largest, most complex structure of the human brain, containing the greatest number of neurons and synapses, which accounts for the highly developed intelligence of the human species
What is the prefrontal cortex?
The region of the cerebral cortex, lying in front of areas controlling body movement, that is responsible for thought - in particular, for consciousness, inhibition of impulses, integrations of information, and use of memory, reasoning, planning, and problem-solving strategies
What are affordances?
The action possibilities that a situation offers an organism with certain motor capabilities
What is Gibson's differentiation theory?
The view that perceptual development involves the detection of increasingly fine-grained, invariant features in the environment