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What is the definition of Anthropology?
The holistic and comparative study of humans
What are the 4 sub-fields of Anthropology?
- –Biological or physical anthropology
- –Cultural or sociocultural anthropology
- –Linguistic anthropology
What major issues does Biological Anthropology deal with?
- •The study of human biology, past and present, within the framework of evolution.
- •The focus is on human biology, with an emphasis on the interaction between biology and culture.
- •Study of modern human genetic variation
- –Looks at how and why human populations are genetically different
- –Compares different biological populations across the globe
What major issues does Cultural Anthropology deal with?
- •The study of contemporary, living human cultures.
- •The goal is to understand all aspects of all sorts of cultures all over the world.
- –We study non-Western, small-scale traditional cultures.
- –Also study Western industrial cultures and sub-cultures.
- •Cultural anthropologists use a distinctive study method called participant observation.
- –Live with the people being studied.
- –Participate in the culture and observe it
- –Learn about the culture from the inside out
What is the Def. of Paleoanthropology?
The study of human evolution through the fossil record
What is the def. of Primatology?
The study of non-human primates
What is Osteology?
studies the human skeleton
What does Forensic anthropology deal with?
applies the methods of biological anthropology to help solve crimes/identify skeletal remains
What major issues does Linguistic Anthropology deal with?
- •Studies one very important part of culture, language and communication.
- •Includes many aspects of language and communication, past and present.
- –The origins of language, language histories and development.
- –Development of written language.
- –Language structure.
- –How people learn languages.
- –How people use language.
What is the def. of Archeology?
the scientific study of historic or prehistoric peoples and their cultures by analysis of their artifacts, inscriptions, monuments, and other remains
What major issues does Archeology deal with?
- • Archaeology studies humans, not dinosaurs.
- •Archaeologists cannot study past cultures directly because they are no longer living.
- •We make inferences about past cultures by looking at what they left behind.
Why is culture important?
- 1. To be proud of who you are and what you came from
- 2. To learn from the inherited experience of your ancestors
- 3. To gain an understanding of the background to the modern institutions of your people
What is ethnocentrism?
- 1. Belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group.
- 2. Overriding concern with race.
What is an Artifact?
portable objects made or modified by humans
What is a Feature?
non-portable objects made by humans
What is an Ecofact?
the remains of plants and animals found in archaeological sites
What is an Archeological site?
a place where people did something in the past and left behind material remains
What are Lithics?
- stone tools.
- •Chipped or flaked stone is shaped by removing sharp-edged flakes of stone.
- •Formal tools: projectile points, knives, scrapers, drills, etc.
How are ground stones made and what are some examples?
•Ground stone is shaped by pecking and grinding
•Includes axes, hammers/mauls, manos and metates, mortars and pestles, etc.
What are sherds and some characteristics?
broken pieces of pottery
–Sherds vs. shards
–Pots are fragile, but sherds are quite durable.
–Changes in decoration styles make useful temporal markers.
What are some examples of features?
–Architecture: houses, walls, monuments, etc.
–Middens, roads, bridges, canals
–Pits: for storage, hearths, trash disposal, etc.
What are the most common animal ecofacts?
bones, teeth, antlers, and horns of animals used
What are the most common plant ecofacts?
–Plant pollen preserves very well.
–Seeds or wood preserve best when charred
What are some conditions that help to preserve remains?
–Frozen—rare in Southwest
–Waterlogged—also rare in Southwest
–Dry—in dry caves and rockshelters
Def. of survey?
examine and record the area and features of (an area of land) so as to construct a map, plan, or description.
Def. of Excavation?
the action of unearthing/digging up
Def. of context?
the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed
What area do we consider to be the Southwest?
From N-S Durango, CO to Durango, Mexico and from W-E Las Vegas NV, to Las Vegas, NM
Describe the difference between modern pueblo and rancheria Native Americans in the Southwest(housing, subsistence and religion)?
Why perform Archeological Survey?
- –Because of state and federal laws.
- •State and federal lands are protected. •Cultural resource management (CRM) employs most archaeologists in the U.S.
–To look at broad regional patterns of settlement.
How do we perform Archeological Survey?
–By walking systematically across the landscape.
–Usually 4-6 people walk in straight lines, evenly spaced.
–When artifacts or features are found, locations are carefully recorded, sites are mapped, artifacts are collected and/or analyzed.
Do we excavate all sites we find and why or why not?
- –Excavation is destructive
- –Not all sites are threatened
- –Site significance
- –Research goals
- –Time and money
Is an entire site usually excavated?
How is excavation done?
- •First testing to see what is buried .
- –Backhoe or hand trenching
- –Test pits
•May then use backhoe to strip off surface deposits, revealing buried feature outlines.
•If excavate further, can use variety of tools for excavation, from large to small.
What records do we keep during excavation?
locations, descriptions of features
Define relative dating and give examples?
any dating method that can only tell older from younger or give a broad timeframe,but cannot provide a precise date in calendar years
Examples are stratigraphy and dating by association
Define chronometric(absolute) dating and give examples?
any method that provides a date in calendar years
-Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)
How is stratigraphy applied as a relative method?
depends on thegeological Law of Superposition to determine relative ages of sediment layers and ofarchaeological objects found within those layers
How is dating by association applied as a relative method?
uses archaeological remains of known relative or absolute agesare used to provide dates for new discoveries found in association with them. Here in theSouthwest these remains are most often projectile points or sherds (in which case we callthe technique ceramic cross-dating)
used to date certain kinds of trees, but only in some parts ofthe world
Tree-ring dating has been mostsuccessful in the Southwestern U.S. and in Europe, although tree-ring chronologies arebeing developed for other areas. In the Southwest U.S., dendrochronology can be usedback to around 300 BC. Advantages: This is the most accurate dating method, since itcan allow dating to the year or even the season the tree died. It also allows us toreconstruct past climates. Disadvantages: It works only in limited areas of the world, andonly on certain species of trees. In the Southwest, it can be used mainly on the ColoradoPlateau and in the mountains (on pines, firs, or spruces), but not in the deserts (mesquite,palo verde, ironwood, etc. cannot be dated).
Define radiocarbon dating?
- Uses a radioactive isotope of carbon (14C) to date anything that was oncealive, anywhere in the world.
- The event being dated is the death of the organism. Candate events from near the present back to around 40,000 BP (before present).Advantages: Can be used anywhere, and it is easy to find datable material inarchaeological sites. Disadvantages: Not as accurate as dendrochronology. Because ofthe nature of radioactive decay, every radiocarbon date has an error factor.
Define Archaeomagnetic dating?
- Tracks the wanderings of the magnetic north pole of the earthover time. Only fired clay that has not been moved since firing can be dated (such as theclay in a clay-lined hearth, a burned clay floor, etc.). In the Southwest, can date back toaround A.D. 600
- Advantages: Can be used in areas of the Southwest wheredendrochronology does not work, and fired clay is common in archaeological sites.Disadvantages: Not as accurate as dendrochronology, and a single clay sample cansometimes indicate more than one possible date.
What happens after excavation ends?
- •Analysis of the materials recovered and information recorded.
- –Artifacts and ecofacts are cleaned, sorted, labeled, analyzed.
- –Features are analyzed using the notes, maps, and photos recorded in the field.
- •After analysis complete, reports are written and published.
- –The rule of thumb is at least 5 weeks analysis and writing for every week in the field .
Where did colonizers come from?
What lines of biological evidence show an Asian origin for most Native Americans?
•DNA markers—mitochondrial, Y chromosome, nuclear
How did people most likely cross into the New
A land bridge called Beringia
Once in the New World what 2 possible ways could they have used to pass by the ice sheets?
–South through an ice-free corridor
–South down the Pacific Coast in boats (most likely)
When did they most likely enter into the New World?
Around 14,000 BC
Are any of the earliest sites showing occupation of the New World in the Southwest?
When do we have clear evidence for people in the Southwest?
Around 10,000 BC
Define the term Beringia?
a loosely defined region surrounding the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, and the Bering Sea. It includes parts of Chukotka and Kamchatka in Russia as well as Alaska in the United States
Define the term Ice-Free Corridor?
A narrow strip of land along the east side of the Rocky Mountains in North America which escaped glaciation during the later Pleistocene and allowed human and animal populations from the north access to the continental interior
Define the term Paleoindian?
classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the American continents during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period
a Paleo-Indian culture of Central and North America, dated to about 11,500–11,000 years ago and earlier. The culture is distinguished by heavy, leaf-shaped stone spearheads.
Define megafaunal extinctions?
extinction of large-bodied mammals, that is, any mammal weighing more than 100 pounds (45 kilograms) during the end of the Pleistocene era, between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago
a Paleo-Indian culture of Central and North America, dated to about 10,500–8,000 years ago. The culture is distinguished by fluted stone projectile points or spearheads
Define San Dieguito?
Between 9000 and 7000 B.C. in the western deserts of the Southwest.
–This culture is still poorly known.
–San Dieguito people hunted mainly small game and relied much more on plants than did other known Paleoindian cultures.
–Overlaps in time with both Folsom and Late Paleoindians elsewhere in the SW
What specific Southwestern cultures are included in the Paleoindian period including dates?
- Clovis : 9500-9000 BC
- Folsom: 9000-8000 BC
- San Dieguito: 9000-7000 BC
What is the first clovis site?
What are the 4 well known clovis sites in the San Pedro Valley area?
- –Lehner Ranch
- –Murray Springs
What sites belong to Folsom?
What are the 3 main environmental zones in the Southwest?
What are some resources found in all three environmental zones?
•Plants include grasses, cholla, prickly pear, yucca.
•Animals include rabbits, rodents, reptiles, various birds, deer, coyotes.
What are the three deserts in the Southwest?
What resources are unique to the desserts?
saguaros and organ pipes, mesquite, ironwood, palo verde, creosote, and javelina.
What is the time period of the Archaic?
7000 B.C. to 200 B.C
Characteristics of archaic time?
–All the megafauna are extinct.
–Climate and resources essentially the same as today.
–Foragers have to adapt to modern conditions
Breakdown of different Archaic times
- •Early Archaic 7000-3500 BC
- –Least known, groups are small and very mobile
- •Middle Archaic 3500-2100 BC
- –Larger groups, more sites, reduced mobility
- •Late Archaic/Early Agricultural 2100-200 BC –Farming arrives in some areas
- –With or without farming, groups are larger and more sedentary
example of Archaic sites found in the Southwest
Define the term Altithermal?
of or belonging to a time during which the climate is relatively warm
What is the Early Agricultural?
•The name for the Late Archaic in the Tucson area.
•Currently dates 2100 B.C. to A.D. 50.
•Agricultural settlements with maize, pithouses, pottery, and canal irrigation develop along the Santa Cruz River in Tucson.
Early Agricultural Phases
Cienega :800 BC-AD 50 Sites: Santa Cruz Bend, Los Pozos, Mission
San Pedro :1200-800 BC Sites: Las Capas
•On the west bank of the Santa Cruz River at the base of A Mountain.
•The site produced pithouses, pottery, and maize at least as early as 2100 BC.
•Among the oldest maize and pottery known in the Southwest.
•A canal dates to 1500 BC.
Las Capas, 1200-800 B.C.
•At I-10 and Ina Road, west of the freeway.
•Occupied in the San Pedro phase.
•Two main occupations, 1200-950 BC and 900-800 BC
•Occupations separated by flood episodes.
•Final abandonment for habitation was after a major flood around 800 B.C.
Las Capas farming
•Initial work in 1998 excavated only a tiny portion of the site; more testing 1999.
•Much more extensive work in 2009 at Ina Road sewage plant has revealed large canal and field systems dating to around 1000 BC.
•Longest canal extends 1+ mi from river.
Other features at Las Capas
•Most features are bell-shaped pits used for storage.
•Also hearths, roasting pits, and a few small circular pithouses.
•Oldest formal cemetery known in Southwest, with 11 burials.
•Other isolated burials, including an unusual one.
Artifacts at Las Capas
•Flaked and ground stone artifacts very common.
–Lots of flaked stone tools and debitage. –Dart points for atlatls; smaller arrow points near end.
–Ground stone manos and metates, stone bowls, disks, cruciforms, and perforated disks
•Jewelry: pendants and beads of mica and imported shell.
•Stone pipes included one with a bone stem and tobacco residue inside it.
•Small clay pots and figurines of people.
•Perishable artifacts occasionally preserved when charred.
Plants and animals at Las Capas
•Plants: burned corncob fragments, tobacco, squash, cotton (1000 B.C)
•Animals: deer, rabbits, fish, turtle, birds, freshwater mussels.
•Also intentionally buried dog skulls and dog burials.
Cienega Phase sites
•Cienega Phase sites in Tucson include Santa Cruz Bend, Los Pozos, a late component of Clearwater, and an early component at the San Agustín Mission site.
•Villages are becoming larger and much more sedentary.
•Underneath the remains of the Spanish San Agustin Mission were Cienega phase houses and a canal.
•Unusual artifacts found in one house: complete carved stone trays, including one in the shape of a turtle.
•These were the first complete stone trays ever found; more are now known from Las Capas.
•Located at I-10 and Prince Road.
•Occupied from Middle Archaic through Hohokam times.
•The largest occupation was the Cienega Phase village.
•The site was named after the wells dug by hand into the floodplain.
•Many of the houses at Los Pozos burned, so they are exceptionally well-preserved
Santa Cruz Bend
•Located at I-10 and Miracle Mile, the site may have had 700 houses total.
•About 180 houses were excavated.
•An estimated 30-50 people lived there at any one time.
- •Open courtyards are surrounded by several small, circular pitstructures.
- –Larger central house is full of storage pits. –Probably related families live in the houses. •Center of the village had an unusually large, 8.5m diameter "Big House."
- –Probably used as a communal structure for village-wide meetings or ceremonies.
- –Clearwater has a similar Cienega phase big house.