Chapter 14

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  1. Three characteristics of cancer (neoplasia)
    • Anaplasia (loss of differentiation and organization)
    • Autonomy (grow at own rate)
    • Angiogenesis (able to stimulate blood vessel formation)
  2. Immune response to cancer
    body identifies abnormal cells and destroys them using T lymphocytes, antibodies, interferons, tumor necrosis factor. But at some point overwhelms immune system
  3. __________ are carcinomas which develop from epilethelial cells and sarcomas from mesenchymal cells
    solid tumors
  4. __________________ are leukemias and lymphomas
    hematological malignancy
  5. Causes of cancer
    • Smoking
    • Carcinogens
    • Radiation
    • Chronic disease
    • Poor nutrition
    • Genetics
    • Viruses¬†
    • Inactivity¬†
    • Stress
    • Weight
  6. Drugs are given in combination and act at different stages of the cell cycle which allows drugs to be
    given in lower doses yet be more effective
  7. G0 phase
    resting phase, cell is dormant
  8. G1 phase
    stimulate to emerge from rest. Synthesis and collecting substances necessary for DNA formation
  9. S phase
    synthesis of DNA with amount of cellular DNA doubled
  10. g2
    cell prepares all substances need for manufacture of mitotic spindles
  11. M phase
    cell splits to form 2 identical daughter cells in process of mitosis
  12. induction
    complete remission or disappearance of abnormal cells
  13. consolidation
    further reduce tumor burden
  14. Alkylating Agent prototype
    Chlorambucil (Leukeran)
  15. Antimetabolites prototype
  16. Antineoplastic Antibiotics
    doxorubicin (adriamycin)
  17. Mitotic inhibitors prototype
    vincristine (oncovin)
  18. Hormone and Hormone modulator protype
    tamoxifen (nolvadex)
  19. Special Issues when caring for an individual receiving chemotherapy
    • Bone marrow suppression
    • Extravasation (focus on safe medication administration)
    • Tumor lysis (tumors rleaseing toxic compounds as cells die)
    • Emesis (throwing up)
    • Rescue medicines (example Leucovorin Calcium)
  20. What type of alternative therapy increase the risk of hepatotoxicity
  21. Ginkgo therapy inhibits
    blood clotting
  22. Saw palmetto therapy may
    increase effects of estrogen hormones
  23. St. John's wort increases
Card Set:
Chapter 14
2014-02-25 20:12:06
pharmacology exam 2
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