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What is the advantage of having cristae on mitochondria?
for oxidative phosphorylation.
What is the purpose of phosphorylating Glucose to Fructose 1,6 - Bisphosphate in the first stage of Glycolysis?
for glucose to move in via
What happens to the Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphate in glycolysis?
It splits into 2 molecules of
What happens to the Triose phosphate in Glycolysis?
substrate level phosphorylation
(net gain is only 2 due to 2 being used to phosphorylate glucose)
2 reduced NAD
from dehydrogenation ( 6 ATP )
How is pyruvate converted into Acetyl coenzyme A?
hydrogen lost is accepted by NAD to form reduced NAD.
The 2 carbon acetate combines with co-enzyme A.
Acetate (2C) combines with Oxaloacetate (4C) to form what in the Krebs cycle?
What are the products after Citrate has been decarboxylated and dehydrogenated?
Alpha Ketoglutarate (5C)
What are the products of converting Alpha Ketoglutarate to Oxaloacetate?
happens twice per glucose molecule.
Why can NAD release 3 ATP ?
NAD releases 3 ATP as it can associate with
3 proton pumps
Why can FAD only release 2 ATP?
FAD releases 2 ATP as it can only associate with
2 proton pumps
Why does a high concentration of protons build up in the inter membrane space?
Proton pumps pump protons from the matrix ( from the reduced NAD and FAD) into the inter membrane space.
Powered by the electron transport chain.
How is ATP synthesized by ATP synthetase?
Protons flow down ATP synthetase via facilitated diffusion.
Which acts as a driving force to combine ADP with Pi to form ATP
What is the role of oxygen in respiration?
It acts as the
final electron acceptor
and also combines with protons to form water.
What would happen if there was no oxygen present for the electron transport chain?
There would be a build up of protons in the matrix so
no concentration gradient
across the membrane.
Electrons accumulate along the chain and the reaction comes to a halt.
Meaning ATP synthetase cannot function.