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Where are the taste buds located in the tongue ?
What are the three major types of for taste buds ?
- Supporting cells
- Gustatory cells
- Basal cells
What are the four basic qualities of taste ? What is the fifth ?
Sour , bitter , sweet , salty
What are the three nerves involved in taste ?
- Glossopharyngeal = IX
- Facial = VII
- Vagus Nerve = X
Where do the sensory nerves synapse for the Taste Buds ?
What type of cells are supporting cells ? (shape)
What is the olfactory epithelium composed of ?
- Cell Bodies of olfactory cells
- Supporting cells - columnar cells
- Basal Cells - make new olfactory cells
What is the function of Basal cells ?
make new olfactory cells
What is the passage of olfactory axons ?
Olfactory Axons > bundles > pass cribriform plate of ethmoid bone > attach to olfactory bulb
What percentage of sensory is vision?
How much of the cerebral cortex does it utilize ?
Discuss the Lacrimal apparatus ?
Lacrimal Gland - produces lacrimal fluid (tears) with enzymes
Lacrimal Sac - fluid drains into the nasal cavity
What are the two first layers of the eye ? What separates the two layers ? What is the the function of the Scleral venous sinus ?
Cornea > Sclera
Drains aqueous humor
What is the Sclera ?
White, opaque region
Provides shape and an anchor for eye muscles
What makes up the Fibrous tunic ?
Sclera and Cornea
What makes up the Vascular Tunic ?
What does the choroid correspond to ? what does the melancytes of this area do ?
Pia and Arachnoid mater - It is the vascular layer of the eye
Stop the scattering of lights and rays
What is the ciliary body ?
What is the ciliary muscle ?
What is the Ciliary Zonule ?
Ciliary process ?
- Thick ring of tissue
- Posterior surface of ciliary body
- Suspensory ligament attach lens
What is the Iris ? What type of muscle is in it ?
It is the colored part of the eye
What is the Pupil ? What muscles constrict and which ones dilate the pupil ?
It is the round central opeening
Sphincter pupillae muscle (constrictor or circular)
Dilator pupillae muscle (dilator or radial)
What makes up the Sensory Tunic ? What are the two layers ?
Pigemented Layer and Neural Layer
What are the two types of photoreceptors ? Are they considered neurons ?
Cones - which operate best in high light and gives color
Rods - more sensitive to light , allow for vision in dim lighting
What is the Macula lutea ?
What is the Fovea centralis ?
What is the Optic disc ?
contains mostly cones
contains only cones -Region of highest visual acuity
What are the two sources of blood to the eye ?
Central artery and vein of retina - Inner two thirds
Capillaries in the choroid -Outer third
What is the vitreous humor of the posterior cavity ?
- A jelly like substance
- Transmits light
- Supports posterior lens surface
- Maintain Ocular pressure
What section divides the eye ?
Ciliary Zonule and Lens
Since the anterior portion of the eye is divided into two portions , the Anterior and posterior what makes up the Anterior , and Posterior ?
- Anterior = Cornea to Iris
- Posterior = Iris to Lens
What is the Anterior portion of the eye filled with ? What does it do ?
Aqueous humor - it supplies the cornea and lens with nutrition
What are the three lens layers ?
What structures help bend light in the eye ? They send it to what focal point ? Why is the lens bendable ?
Lens, cornea, and humors
Allows for focusing on nearby objects
What is the visual pathway signal to the cerebral cortex ?
Retina > photoreceptors > bipolar cells > ganglion cells > Optic nerve > Lateral geniculate nucleus > Thalamic neurons > primary visual cortex
Where else do the nerves of the optic tract travel ?
- Superior colliculi
- Pretectal nuclei
- suprachiasmatic nucleus
What is Macular Degeneration ?
- It is age related degeneration of the eye.
- Caused by visual pigment build-up in the eye
What is Retinopathy ?
Diabetic induced - Blood vessels in the eyes rupture and show hemorrhaging , then cause blindness
What is the Trachoma disorder ?
It is a contagious infection of the conjunctiva
What are the three major regions of the ear and their function ?
- Outer ear - hearing
- Middle ear - hearing
- Inner ear - hearing and equilibrium
What is the Outerear is composed of ? List and function
Auricle (Pinna) - Helps direct sound
- External Acoustic Meatus -hairs, sebaceous glands, and ceruminous glands
- Tympanic membrane - Forms the boundary between the external and middle ear
What makes up the middle ear ? List and function
tympanic cavity -A small, air-filled space
Pharyngotympanic tube (auditory or eustachian tube) -Links the middle ear and pharynx
Ear ossicles - small bones
What are the three bones of the Ear Ossicles ?
What makes up the inner ear ?
Bony labyrinth - semicircular canals , vestibule ,cochlea
Membranous Labyrinth - Semicircular ducts , Utricle and saccule , Cochlear duct
What is the Vestible ?
It is the portion of the inner ear that has the membranous labyrinth.
The membranous labyrinth and the bony labyrinth have what types of fluid ?
Membranous = endolymph
Bony = Perilymph (Continuous Cerebral Spinal Fluid)
Where is the Utricle and the Saccule ?
In the membranous labyrinth -
Two egg shaped structures that house the macula ( sensory epithelium)
What is the function of the Macula ?
Monitor the position of the head .
What is the Crista Ampullaris ?
Receptor for rotational acceleration
What is the Cochlea ? What is the Organ of Corti ?
A spiraling chamber in the bony labyrinth , contains receptors for hearing
the receptor epithelium for hearing
Where does the the equilibrium pathway Transmit it's information ? What is it for ?
Lower brain reflex centers
Position of head movement
Where does the ascending auditory pathway send it's information ?
Transmits information from cochlear receptors to the cerebral cortex
What is the cause of motion sickness?
Mismatch of sensory inputs
What is Menierer's Syndrome ?
It is where equilibrium is greatly disturbed
-Endolymph build up in the membranous labyrinth
How is conduction of deafness caused ?
There is a tear in the tympanic membrane
Otitis media (Ear inflammation)
What is Sensorineural Deafness ?
Deafness caused by any part of the auditory pathway.