Special Senses

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Special Senses
2014-03-10 18:58:49

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  1. Where are the taste buds located in the tongue ?
    Tongue Papillae
  2. What are the three major types of for taste buds ?
    • Supporting cells
    • Gustatory cells
    • Basal cells
  3. What are the four basic qualities of taste ? What is the fifth ?
    Sour , bitter , sweet , salty 

    Umami "deliciousness"
  4. What are the three nerves involved in taste ?
    • Glossopharyngeal = IX
    • Facial = VII
    • Vagus Nerve = X
  5. Where do the sensory nerves synapse for the Taste Buds ?
  6. What type of cells are supporting cells ? (shape)
  7. What is the olfactory epithelium composed of ?
    • Cell Bodies of olfactory cells
    • Supporting cells - columnar cells
    • Basal Cells - make new olfactory cells
  8. What is the function of Basal cells ?
    make new olfactory cells
  9. What is the passage of olfactory axons ?
    Olfactory Axons > bundles > pass cribriform plate of ethmoid bone > attach to olfactory bulb
  10. What percentage of sensory is vision?
    How much of the cerebral cortex does it utilize ?
    • 70%
    • 40%
  11. Discuss the Lacrimal apparatus ? 
    Lacrimal Gland
    Lacrimal Sac
    Lacrimal Gland - produces lacrimal fluid (tears) with enzymes 

    Lacrimal Sac - fluid drains into the nasal cavity
  12. What are the two first layers of the eye ? What separates the two layers ? What is the the function of the Scleral venous sinus ?
    Cornea > Sclera 

    Limbus Junction

    Drains aqueous humor
  13. What is the Sclera ?
    White, opaque region

    Provides shape and an anchor for eye muscles
  14. What makes up the Fibrous tunic ?
    Sclera and Cornea
  15. What makes up the Vascular Tunic ?
    • choroid
    • ciliary body
    • iris
  16. What does the choroid correspond to ? what does the melancytes of this area do  ?
    Pia and Arachnoid mater - It is the vascular layer of the eye

    Stop the scattering of lights and rays
  17. What is the ciliary body ?
    What is the ciliary muscle ?
    What is the Ciliary Zonule ?
    Ciliary process ?
    • Thick ring of tissue
    • Posterior surface of ciliary body 
    • Suspensory ligament attach lens
  18. What is the Iris ? What type of muscle is in it ?
    It is the colored part of the eye 

    Smooth muscle
  19. What is the Pupil ? What muscles constrict and which ones dilate the pupil ?
    It is the round central opeening 

    Sphincter pupillae muscle (constrictor or circular)

    Dilator pupillae muscle (dilator or radial)
  20. What makes up the Sensory Tunic ? What are the two layers ?

    Pigemented Layer and Neural Layer
  21. What are the two types of photoreceptors ? Are they considered neurons ?
    Cones - which operate best in high light and gives color

    Rods - more sensitive to light , allow for vision in dim lighting

  22. What is the Macula lutea ? 

    What is the Fovea centralis ? 

    What is the Optic disc ?
    contains mostly cones

    contains only cones -Region of highest visual acuity

    Blind Spot
  23. What are the two sources of blood to the eye ?
    Central artery and vein of retina - Inner two thirds

    Capillaries in the choroid -Outer third
  24. What is the vitreous humor of the posterior cavity ?
    • A jelly like substance 
    • Transmits light
    • Supports posterior lens surface
    • Maintain Ocular pressure
  25. What section divides the eye ?
    Ciliary Zonule and Lens
  26. Since the anterior portion of the eye is divided into two portions , the Anterior and posterior what makes up the Anterior , and Posterior ?
    • Anterior = Cornea to Iris
    • Posterior = Iris to Lens
  27. What is the Anterior portion of the eye filled with ? What does it do ?
    Aqueous humor - it supplies the cornea and lens with nutrition
  28. What are the three lens layers ?
    • Capsule
    • Epithelium 
    • Fibers
  29. What structures help bend light in the eye ? They send it to what focal point ? Why is the lens bendable ?
    Lens, cornea, and humors


    Allows for focusing on nearby objects
  30. What is the visual pathway signal to the cerebral cortex ?
    Retina > photoreceptors > bipolar cells > ganglion cells > Optic nerve > Lateral geniculate nucleus > Thalamic neurons > primary visual cortex
  31. Where else do the nerves of the optic tract travel ?
    • Midbrain
    • Superior colliculi
    • Pretectal nuclei 
    • suprachiasmatic nucleus
  32. What is Macular Degeneration ?
    • It is age related degeneration of the eye.
    • Caused by visual pigment build-up in the eye
  33. What is Retinopathy ?
    Diabetic induced - Blood vessels in the eyes rupture and show hemorrhaging , then cause blindness
  34. What is the Trachoma disorder ?
    It is a contagious infection of the conjunctiva
  35. What are the three major regions of the ear and their function ?
    • Outer ear - hearing 
    • Middle ear - hearing 
    • Inner ear - hearing and equilibrium
  36. What is the Outerear is composed of ? List and function
    Auricle (Pinna) - Helps direct sound

    • External Acoustic Meatus -hairs, sebaceous glands, and ceruminous glands
    • Tympanic membrane - Forms the boundary between the external and middle ear
  37. What makes up the middle ear ? List and function
    tympanic cavity -A small, air-filled space

    Pharyngotympanic tube (auditory or eustachian tube) -Links the middle ear and pharynx

    Ear ossicles - small bones
  38. What are the three bones of the Ear Ossicles ?
    • Malleus 
    • Incus 
    • Stapes
  39. What makes up the inner ear ?
    Bony labyrinth - semicircular canals , vestibule ,cochlea

    Membranous Labyrinth - Semicircular ducts , Utricle and saccule , Cochlear duct
  40. What is the Vestible ?
    It is the portion of the inner ear that has the membranous labyrinth.
  41. The membranous labyrinth and the bony labyrinth have what types of fluid ?
    Membranous = endolymph  

    Bony = Perilymph (Continuous Cerebral Spinal Fluid)
  42. Where is the Utricle and the Saccule ?
    In the membranous labyrinth -

    Two egg shaped structures that house the macula ( sensory epithelium)
  43. What is the function of the Macula ?
    Monitor the position of the head .
  44. What is the Crista Ampullaris ?
    Receptor for rotational acceleration
  45. What is the Cochlea ? What is the Organ of Corti ?
    A spiraling chamber in the bony labyrinth , contains receptors for hearing

    the receptor epithelium for hearing
  46. Where does the the equilibrium pathway Transmit it's information ? What is it for ?
    Lower brain reflex centers 

    Position of head movement
  47. Where does the ascending auditory pathway send it's information ?
    Transmits information from cochlear receptors to the cerebral cortex
  48. What is the cause of motion sickness?
    Mismatch of sensory inputs
  49. What is Menierer's Syndrome ?
    It is where equilibrium is greatly disturbed

    -Endolymph build up in the membranous labyrinth
  50. How is conduction of deafness caused ?
    There is a tear in the tympanic membrane 


    Otitis media (Ear inflammation)
  51. What is Sensorineural Deafness ?
    Deafness caused by any part of the auditory pathway.