Ethics Test 1
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is the view that moral truths exist, but they are determined on an individual level.
Who is the father of ethics or moral philosophy? What makes him the the father of ethics?
Socrates because he is responsible for the philosophical switch between metaphysics to ethics,
What is the etymological definition of Philosophy?
The term philosophy is taken from the Greek word, (philia) meaning "to love" or "to befriend" and , (Sophia) meaning "wisdom." Thus, "philosophy" means "the love of wisdom"
Did Socrates ever write anything?
No his Student Plato did.
Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it, although the term is not easily defined. Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:What is ultimately there?What is it like?
s the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge and is also referred to as "theory of knowledge". It questions what knowledge is and how it can be acquired, and the extent to which knowledge pertinent to any given subject or entity can be acquired.
is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.
a vindication of the divine attributes, particularly holiness and justice, in establishing or allowing theexistence of physical and moral evil.
Deductive reasoning: is a basic form of valid reasoning. Deductive reasoning, or deduction, starts out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion
In deductive reasoning, if something is true of a class of things in general, it is also true for all members of that class. For example, "All men are mortal. Harold is a man. Therefore, Harold is mortal.
Inductive reasoning: inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations.
Even if all of the premises are true in a statement, inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false. Here’s an example: "Harold is a grandfather. Harold is bald. Therefore, all grandfathers are bald." The conclusion does not follow logically from the statements.
a proper or reasonable way of thinking about or understanding something
- An argument that uses poor reasoning.
- An argument can be fallacious whether or not its conclusion is true
Universal Moral Theory
is themeta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, appliesuniversally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals, regardless of culture,race, sex, religion, nationality, sexuality, or other distinguishing feature
truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive.
is a theory of knowledge which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience
It's the philosophical notion that all cultural beliefs are equally valid and that truth itself is relative, depending on the cultural environment
entail that no one has any moral knowledge. Many moral skeptics also make the stronger, modal, claim that moral knowledge is impossible. Moral skepticism is particularly opposed to moral realism: the view that there are knowable, objective moral truths.
the view that moral judgments do not function as statements of fact but rather as expressions of the speaker’s or writer’s feelings: Like subjectivism it teaches that there are no objective moral facts, and that therefore 'murder is wrong' can't be objectively true
is a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes. The assumption is that humans are logical beings that make the choices that make the most sense to them
noncognitivism implies that moral knowledge is impossible
is the philosophical view that a variety of existing things can be explained in terms of a single reality or substance. The wide definition states that all existing things go back to a source which is distinct from them
s the position that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical, or that the mind and bodyare not identical. Thus, it encompasses a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, and is contrasted with other positions, such as physicalism, in the mind–body problem
a system of philosophical idealism emphasizing the primacy of the One (as the Absolute or Nature) rather than of the many
belief which provides an explanation of the physical world by saying that all of the world's objects are composed of a single element.
pluralism is a doctrine that there is more than one reality, while realism holds that there is but one reality
argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value
that part of moral philosophy, or ethics, concerned with criteria of what is morally right and wrong. It includes the formulation of moral rules that have direct implications for what human actions, institutions, and ways of life should be like.
he empirical (observational) study of the moral beliefs and practices of different peoples and cultures in various places and times. It aims not only to elaborate such beliefs and practices but also to understand them insofar as they are causally conditioned by social, economic, and geographic circumstances.
the action or process of reasoning systematically in support of an idea, action, or theory.
formal method of interactive and representational argument
Meno Key points:
- -knowledge comes by recollection
- -If virtue is a kind of knowledge it can be taught. If not it cannot be taught.
- Knowledge is justified true belief. You need the justification — you need to be able to explain and support your true belief — because otherwise knowledge “flies away”
World of becoming
- -physical world we perceive through our senses
- -world is always in movement, always changing
World of being. (pure forms)
- -Spirit world
- -- world of forms, or ideas. It is absolute, independent, and transcendent. It never changes.
- -The perfect reality.
- -incorruptible, infinite world.
Plato's inborn knowledge
- Learning is the development of ideas buried deep in the soul
- , when an Idea is "learned" it is actually just "recalled."
The soul once lived in "Reality", but got trapped in the body. It once knew everything, but forgot it. The goal of Recollection is to get back to true Knowledge. To do this, one must overcome the body
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