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What do many offenders lack and what effects might this have?
- They lack the appropriate strategies to deal with potentially aggressive situations in a non confrontational manner
- This causes them to respond to threats or relatively ambiguous situations with anger that may lead to violence
What do Anger management programs involve?
Group work in which the participants learn to employ self control and other coping skills
What does cognitive preparation involve?
- Participants are encouraged to actively think about times in the past where they have become angry
- This helps them identify possible triggers in the environment
- Particular patterns that cause anger and could be avoided in the future are also identified
- The individual is encouraged to contemplate the consequences of losing their temper and to appreciate that in the long run these can only be negative
What does skill acquisition involve?
- The individual is taught a range of cognitive and behavioural strategies allowing them to deal with incidents in a more positive manner
- For instance, positive self talk may break the pattern of response that usually leads to anger in situations
- Behavioural techniques such as relaxation and breathing techniques to counter tension are employed
What does Application practice involve?
- The individual gains an opportunity to put into practice the strategies and techniques they have been taught
- This is often achieved by means of role playing exercises that are conducted under supervised, controlled conditions
What was the aim of the Ireland study of 2004?
To assess whether anger management programs worked with young male offenders
What methodology was employed during the Ireland study of 2004?
- A quasi experiment was conduced comparing a group of 50 prisoners who had completed CALM and a group of 37 who were assessed as suitable, but had not taken the course
- Prisoners were given a cognitive behavioural interview
- Prisoners completed a Wing behavioural checklist (WBC) rating 29 occasions of angry behaviour with scores of 0,1 or 2 for the week before the interview
- Prisoners also completed a self report questionnaire on anger management with 53 questions
- The measurements were taken before and after treatment
- The control group also repeated measures twice
What were the results of the Ireland study of 2004?
- Prisoners who had completed CALM rated themselves lower on the anger questionnaire and were rated lower by the officers than the control group
- 92% showed improvement on at least one measure of aggression and anger,
- 48% on two measures
- 8% showed a deterioration on measures after completing the course
What can be concluded from the Ireland study of 2004?
- The treatment appears to be effective in the short term
- No reoffending data was collected so we do not know its long term effectiveness