MicroBio Test 3

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berraL13
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263962
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MicroBio Test 3
Updated:
2014-02-26 11:26:57
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WMU test 3 microbio
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  1. what does bone marrow do
    produce all the blood cells
  2. lymphatic system mirrors what other system
    circulatory
  3. The immune system works together to do what
    protect us (self) from foreign agents (non-self)
  4. "self" v. "non-self"
    • self is all cells had before birth. So in mother
    • non-self is not human and bacteria after born
  5. what does the lymphatic system do
    collects fluids and blood cells after they have left the capillaries and filtered through tissues, and filtered through lymph nodes, and empties back into veins.
  6. What do precursor stem cells do in bone marrow
    differentiate into all the different types of blood cells from one of two groups.
  7. lymphoid cells develop into what 
    which are known as?
    • T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
    • known as cells of specific immunity
  8. myeloid cell line develops into what
    known as what
    • red and white blood cells
    • known as non specific immunity
  9. types of granulocytes
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
  10. what are granulocytes
    category of white blood cells that differ on the presences of granules in there cytoplasm
  11. polymorphonucluear referes to what when talking about granulocytes
    the shape of the nuclei
  12. describe nuetrophils (one of the 3 granulocytes)
    and stain
    • most common in body
    • function is phagocytosis and digest engulfed materials 
    • neutral stain
  13. describe Basophils (1/3 granulocytes)
    stain
    • basic stain 
    • produce cytokines which cause inflammation
  14. describe eosinophils (1/3 granulocytes)
    stain
    • acid stain 
    • cause allergic response to antigens
  15. mononuclear cells have what
    a nonsegmented nucleus
  16. describe monocytes
    • circulate in the blood and migrate into tissues 
    • or look for foreign material 
    • have little cytoplasm
  17. when monocytes stay fixed in material what are they then
    histiocytes
  18. when monocytes mature and ingest foreign material they become what
    Macrophages which contain a lot of cytoplasm
  19. macrophages are the ______ of inflammation fallowing ______
    • second stage
    • neutrophils
  20. define innate immunity
    host defense mechanisms
  21. give and example of a physical barrier 5
    • skin 
    • mucous membranes 
    • low pH of sweat
    • saliva 
    • stomach acid
  22. chemical barriers are also called what
    enzymatic
  23. examples of chemical barriers
    • lysozyme and beta-lysin in serum and tears
    • peroxide in saliva
  24. what is the complement system
    20 proteins in the blood that act as a cascade to attach invading organisms
  25. the "cascade" of the complement system can be activated by two pathways
    • specific antibody
    • nonspecific antibody
  26. define cytokines
    the cells of the immune system coordinate vie chemical messengers
  27. interferons are
    produced by virally-infected cells and protect nearby cells from infection
  28. interleukins mediate
    inflammation by recruiting inflammatory cells into tissues for circulation
  29. colony stimulating factors cause
    immature immune system cells to multiply and differentiate during attack by an invading microorganism
  30. tumor necrosis factos also mediates
    inflammation and kills calls like tumors
  31. define phagocytosis
    engulf and digest material, including invading organisms
  32. some examples of phagocytes 3
    • white blood cells (leukocytes)
    • macrophages
    • neutrophils
  33. steps of phagocytosis
    • attracted to area (chemotaxis)
    • attach to foreign object (opsonization)
    • surround cell (phagocytosis)
    • membrane bound particle (phagosome)
    • granules enter phagosome and kill and digest
  34. inflammation is the bodes...
    initial, non specific reaction to cell damage
  35. signs of inflammation 4
    redness, heat, swelling and pain
  36. inflammation slows the spread of...
    infection and bring host defenses to the area
  37. fever is...
    an early and sensitive response to tissue damage
  38. _____ go to the hypothalamus in the brain and raise the bodes set temperate
    cytokines
  39. for a fever elevated temperature reduces...
    growth rate of microorganisms and improves inflammation
  40. fever should not...
    be treated or reduced
  41. the immune system is mediated by
    lymphocytes
  42. non-specific immunity is same response for (2)
    • all infections or challenges
    • repeated exposure
  43. specific immunity (2) why diff then non-specific
    • host response is specific to the invading pathogen 
    • has memory: diff/stronger response on repeated challenge
  44. where does the immune system originate from
    bone marrow
  45. B lymphocytes make
    antibodys
  46. T lymphocytes do what
    coordinate the immune system and provide cellular immunity
  47. B lymphocytes have
    endoplamic reculum to make antibody protien
  48. t lymphocytes is the cell that controls...
    other lymphs and has immune functions
  49. example of lymphoid tissue
    spleen
  50. define antigen
    substance that are recognized as foreign or non-self by the immune system
  51. best antigens in order (4)
    protein, carbohydrate, lipids, and nucleic acid
  52. the immune system recognized the _____ of the antigen molecule
    three dimensional shape (epitope)
  53. define epitope 
    protein ex
    • part of antigen where antibody attaches itself
    • protein have 10-25 amino acids
  54. when a new antigen is introduced to the body is it recognized as
    foreign or non-self
  55. antibodies are glycoproteins which are what and also called what
    • sugars and protein
    • immuniglobulins
  56. the basic structure of an antibody
    4 proteins: 2 long and short (heavy and light) bound together by disulfide bonds
  57. FC region of an antibody structure
    amino acid sequence is constant
  58. Fab region of the antibody structue
    amino acid sequence is highly variable
  59. The FAB ends of antibodies adhere to antigen epitopes via...
    hydrogen bonds
  60. Antibodies/ immunoglobulins have 4 functions
    • 1. foreign substance removed by lymphatic system
    • 2. phagocytosis to ingest foreign 
    • 3.inactuvae foreign substance
    • 4.activation of complement cascade and attack complex
  61. five classes of immunoglobullins
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgM
    • IgE
    • IgD
  62. IgG basics
    • means immunoglobullin G
    • monomer
    • highest level in blood, found in blood
  63. IgA basics
    • DImer
    • produced by mucosal membranes in secretions
  64. IgM basics
    • pentamer
    • first antibody class
  65. IgE basics
    • monomer
    • found in tissues
    • when it finds antigen it activates tissue basophils to produce the allergic response
  66. IgD basics
    surface receptor for antigen on B lymphocytes
  67. After initial exposure, B lymphocytes make a low level of which class of antibody
    IgM
  68. Small amount of (class of antibody) is made at the end of response
    IgG
  69. memory T and B cells are produced and stored in the ….
    lymphoid tissue
  70. 4 types of hypersensitivities
    • immediate
    • cytotoxic
    • immune-complex mediated
    • delayed cell-mediated
  71. if the immune system responds too much its called what
    hypersensitivity
  72. if the immune system does not respond when is should its called
    immunodeficiency
  73. if the immune system attacks the patient its called
    autoimmune disease
  74. things in common about hypersensitivity
    • -normal to crazy
    • -require lymphocytes 
    • -can be treated and prevented
  75. Type 1: immediate hypersensitivity is mediated by what antibody class
    IgE
  76. immediate hypersensitivity you make too much..
    IgE
  77. in immediate hypersensitivity antigens bind to IgE and is degranulates relasing...
    histamine
  78. immediate hypersensitivity happens how fast?
    FAST!
  79. examples of symptoms of hypersensitivity
    • hives
    • asthma
    • hay fever
  80. hypesensitivity and genetics
    20-30% produced IgE called anergic individuals
  81. systematic/general immediate hypersensitivity is also called
    ex
    • anaphylaxis shock. antigens enter the blood stream
    • bee venomn, penuts...
  82. type 1 treatment:
    • antihistamine
    • epi pen
    • bronchodilator
    • steroid
    • desensitization
  83. Type 2: cytotoxic hypersensitivity is mediated by what
    IgG and IgM
  84. 2 examples of type 2 cytotoxic hypersensitivity
    • transfusion reaction: blood 
    • hemolytic disease of new born: Rh- mom has Rh+ kid
  85. type 3 complex-mediated hypersensitivity is caused by what
    excess antigen-antibody complexs
  86. type 4 delayed hypersensitivity
    • slow 2-3 days
    • involved from T cells 
    • causes rashes 
    • tuberculin skin test
  87. ex of type 4 delayed hyp
    and treatment
    • poison ivy
    • latex
    • nickel 
    • steroids
  88. transplant immunology rejection
    • occurs in the graft 
    • match donor and recipients
  89. autoimmune disease ex
    • immune system attack self tissues
    • arthritis 
    • muscle
    • treatment: immunosupression surgery
  90. immunization def
    use of immune system to protect the patient of pop against harmful agents
  91. natural immunity
    production os immunity though natural events (not vaccine)
  92. artificial immunity
    is the product of immunity intentionally
  93. active immunity
    use of patients own immune system to produce immunity
  94. passive immunity
    giving the patient immunity the did not make
  95. active immunity is the patients own...
    • T and B cells to respond to the antigen 
    • can be natural or artificial 
    • memorry 
    • last long time
  96. passive immunity is the patient...
    • is given immune factor from somewhere else
    • fetus gets antibodies from mother
    • IgA is in breast milk
    • not memory 
    • short time (month)
  97. passive immunity drugs
    • inject immunoglobin 
    • short term protection
  98. vaccines are
    active artifical immunity
  99. vaccines protect
    both patients and individuals in pop (herd immunity)
  100. good vaccine
    • high level of protection
    • safe w/ few side effects
    • last long time
  101. Inactivated (dead/subunit) vaccines
    • can be whole killed organism
    • contain most immunogenic parts or organism
  102. Live (attenuated) vaccines *turn down
    • change organism to make safe
    • ex. chickenpox
    • can be given in nose to IgA immunity
  103. herd immunity need what percent of coverage
    80-90%
  104. vaccine side effects
    primary immune response
  105. immunoassy is a test that
    • takes advantage of the specific antigen-antibody reaction
    • measure antibody or antigen in patient
  106. immunologic testing produces 2 antibodies
    • polyclonal
    • monoclonal
  107. serology (seroconversion) is when a patient
    encounters an antigen they produce an immune response.
  108. serology can be used to...
    diagnose infection
  109. your serum is an...
    infectious disease medical record
  110. serology measures what antibody class
    IgM, IgG
  111. types of serology tests
    • immunoassays: enzyme linked
    • agglutination/ precipitation: antibody complex
    • immunoflourescence: fluorescent molecule to antibody
  112. normal flora
    humans and their associated microorganism are an eco system
  113. resident normal flora
    microorganisms that live on the exterior and contagious mucosal surfaces
  114. normal flora can be what (3)
    • permanent 
    • transient (dissapear)
    • intermittent (come and go)
  115. define symbiosis
    stable close ecological relationship between two organisms
  116. commensalism
    • one organism benefits, the other if not affected
    • ex skin flora
  117. mutualism
    • both organism benefit
    • GI track
  118. Parasitism
    • one organism benefits the other is harmed 
    • ex. infection. unusual
  119. normal flora is established….
    at birth
  120. the first stable presence of microorganism on the body is called
    colonization
  121. normal flora are usually ____
    positive for host
  122. noninvasive
    do not normally cause infecting
  123. competetive excluaion
    occupy colonization sites, pathogens are excluded
  124. normal flora can change why
    diet, antibiotics
  125. colonization
    attachment of microbes on hots
  126. infection
    microbe invasion of host tissues
  127. opportunistic pathogens
    cause disease only in hosts with impaired defenses
  128. strict pathogens
    cause disease in any host
  129. virulence
    • characteristics that enable a microorganism to be a pathogen
    • -quantitative measurement
  130. proving virulence: Koch 4 steps
    • 1. present in every case pf disease
    • 2. pure culture from the diseased host
    • 3. same disease must result if the organism is introduced into another host
    • 4. same organism must be recovered from the infected host
  131. infectious dose 
    lethal dose
    • ID50
    • LD50
  132. communicable/contagious
    spread person to person
  133. incubation period
    time between exposure and onset of disease
  134. illness or disease
    dammage to host.
  135. convalesnce
    reuturn to normal
  136. step in pathogenesis 6
    • transmission
    • adherence
    • colonization
    • damage
    • exit
    • survival
  137. modes of transmission 3
    • direct: person-person. herps
    • indirect: air food water. cold
    • zoonoses: animal-huma. rabies
  138. microbes attach through specific molecules 2
    • adhesins
    • receptors
  139. adherence of microbes
    both negative charges to repel each other
  140. toxins
    • cause damage without entering tissues
    • type 3 secretion system inject toxins
  141. exotoxins
    • proteins that are excreted by bacteria 
    • often A-B structure 
    • A; protein
    • B binding 
    • can vaccines for B
  142. Endotoxin lipoplysaccharide
    • G (-) cell men. 
    • induce cytokines cause fever and shock 
    • hard to detect/ remove
  143. invasion
    • enter tissue by going into epithelial cell
    • enzyme: hyaluronidae digest acid
    • pathogen: endocytosis pass through, exocyt real ease

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