Nematodes of large animals

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sinopa
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263964
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Nematodes of large animals
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2014-03-12 12:44:32
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parasitology animal health science cal poly pomona cpp ahs
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AHS 302L winter 2014 dr wallace
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  1. abomasal worms of ruminants, overview
    • affect cattle, goats and sheep
    • adults live on mucosal surface of abomasum
  2. Abomasal worms of ruminants species
    • Haemonchus species
    • Ostertagia species
    • Trichostrongylus species
  3. Haemonchus contortus
    • barber pole worm
    • both larvae and adults suck blood
    • 1000 adults can suck 50ml of blood a day
    • female lays 10k eggs a day
    • can cause severe anemia -> death
  4. Bottle Jaw
    • caused by Haemonchus species
    • due to loss of protein from the gut
    • loss of digested protein
    • leads to decreased oncotic pressure
    • fluid leaks from blood vessels causing edema
  5. Osteragia species
    • EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
    • larvae invade gastric glands of the abomasum
    • decreased digestion
    • diarrhea and weight loss
    • heavy infections can be fatal
    • alters abomasum pH
  6. Trichostrongylus species
    • ruminants and horses
    • most commonly diagnosed
    • damage mucosa of abomasum
    • light infection may cause stunted growth and decreased in appetite
    • heavy infections cause diarrhea and weight loss
  7. Equine Intestinal Worms
    • Strongylus vulgaris
    • Strongylus edentaus
    • Strongylus equinus
  8. Strongylus vulgaris, edentaus, equinus
    • large intestine of horses - STRONGYLES
    • fecal diagnosis - morulated egg with thin shell
    • moly in liver and migrate to large intestine where they mature
    • weight loss, fever, poor appetite
  9. Strongylus vulgaris
    • "blood worm"
    • intestinal worm of horses
    • larvae migrate through intestines to mesenteric arteries and liver, molt in liver and mature in SI
    • severe artery damage can cause death
    • cranial mesenteric artery provides blood flow to intestinal tract
  10. Intestinal threadworms, overview
    only female is parasitic, male is free livinginfection via penetration of skin or ingestioninfection via ingestion of colostrumsymptoms are rare - diarrhea, weight lossfemale is partenogenic - non-fertilized eggs
  11. Strongyloides papillosus
    intestinal threadworm of cattle
  12. Strongyloides ransomi
    intestinal threadworm of pigs
  13. Strongyloides westeri
    intestinal threadworm of horses
  14. Intestinal threadworms, species
    • Strongylodes westeri - horses
    • Strongyloides ransomi - pigs
    • Strongyloides papillosus - cattle
  15. Stomach worms of equine
    • Habronoma muscae
    • Habronema microstoma
    • Draschia megastoma
  16. Habronoma muscae
    • stomach worm of equine
    • intermediate host - fly
    • infection via fly ingestion or when larvae deposited in wounds
    • diagnosis by fecal float
  17. Habronema microstoma
    • free living in stomach
    • stomach worm of equine
    • intermediate host - fly
    • infection via fly ingestion or when larvae deposited in wounds
    • diagnosis by fecal float
  18. Draschia megastoma
    • produces tumor-like swelling in stomach wall
    • stomach worm of equine
    • intermediate host - fly
    • infection via fly ingestion or when larvae deposited in wounds
    • diagnosis by fecal float
  19. Cutaneous stomach worms
    • Habronema and Draschia
    • cause "cutaneous habronemiasis" or "summer sores" - abberrant larvae on skn
    • skin ulcers/lesions on legs, penis, sheath, eyes, around muzzle and on skin of any open wound
  20. Summer sores
    • Caused by Habronema and Draschia aberrant larvae on skin
    • Also called cutaneous habronemiasis
  21. Oxyuris Equi
    • equine pinworms
    • found in ecum, colon and rectum
    • females migrate to anus to lay eggs
    • causes extreme pruritus
    • diagnosis via scotch tape prep, fecal float and visual symptoms of tail rubbing
  22. Parascaris equorum
    • equine roundworm or ascarid
    • largest of the equine nematodes
    • lives in small intestines
    • worms and eggs can be shed in feces
    • eggs can be found on standard fecal float
  23. Ascaris suum
    • roundworm of swine
    • swine ascarid of large intestinal roundworm of pigs
    • largest nematode in the small intestines of pigs
    • worms and eggs can be shed in feces
    • eggs can be found on standard fecal flotation
  24. Ascaridia spp
    • Roundworms
    • Ascarids of birds
    • psittacines, poultry, waterfowl
    • small intestine
    • diagnosis on direct smear or flotation of feces, ascarid type egg
  25. Baylisascaris procyonis
    • large nematode of raccoons - "raccoon roundworm"
    • very prevalent in healthy raccoon populations - 13-92%
    • shed massive numbers of eggs in feces - latrines
    • sticky eggs persist in envrionment for years
    • any warm blooded mammal can be infected
    • uncomon in dogs, can become infected by ingestion of larvae of eggs. can be shed in egg feces
  26. Diagnosis of Bayisascaris procyonis
    • eggs can be identified in feces using standard fecal flotation
    • need to distinguish from Toxocara sp
    • eggs are slightly smaller than Toxocara canis
  27. Trichuris ovis
    • whipworm of ruminants
    • trichinelloid/trichuroid eggs
    • found on standard fecal float
  28. Trichuris suis
    • whipworm of swine
    • Trichinelloid/trichuroid eggs
    • eggs found on standard fecal float
  29. Oncocerca cervicalis
    • equine filarial worm
    • spread by Culicoides sp
    • adults migrate to nuchal ligament
    • causes intense puritis
    • "Cutaneous onchocerciasis"
    • alopecia, skin scaling
    • diagnosis on biopsy
  30. Dictyocaulus spps.
    lungworm of ruminants
  31. Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
    lungworm of equids
  32. Muellerius capillaris
    lungworm of sheep and goats
  33. Protostrongylus sp
    lungworm of sheep and goats
  34. Lungworm of sheep and goats
    • Mullerius capillaris
    • Protostrongylus sp.
  35. Lungworm diagnosis
    finding larvae on standard fecal flotation, flotation of coughed up sputum or the Baermann technique
  36. Thelazia spps.
    eyeworms of ruminants
  37. THelazia lacrymalis
    eyeworm of equines
  38. Diagnosis of eyeworms
    • adults found in conjunctival sac
    • may be diagnosed by finding ova or larvae in lacrimal secretions
  39. Trichinella spiralis
    • Trichina worm
    • musculoskeletal system worm
    • procine intermediate host
    • may live in muscle for many years
    • infection via ingestion of muscle from host or eggs in feces
    • larvae are freed upon digestion of the muscle
    • pigs can become infected when fed garbage with Trichinella
    • humans are primary and intermediate hosts
    • diagnose by muscle biopsy
  40. Prevention of Trichinella spiralis
    • often more than one nematode present in food animal species
    • regular deworming with broad spectrum anthelmintics important
    • pasture rotation
  41. Baermann technique
    • concentration technique using sedimentation
    • larvae are collected using gravity
  42. List of species that can be detected with Baermann Technique
    • Dictyocaulus sp., - ruminant and equine lungworm, feces or sputum
    • Mullerius capillaris - ruminant and equine lungworm, feces or sputum
    • Protostronglus sp. - ruminant and equine lungworm, feces or sputum
    • Strongyloides stercoralis - threadworm, canine feces
    • Filaroides sp. - lungworm, canine feces
    • Aelurostrongylus abstrusus - feline lungworm, feces
    • Ollulanus tricuspis - feline trchostrongyle, vomitus
  43. Haemonchus egg
  44. Ostertagia
  45. Trichostrongylus
  46. Haemonchus contortus
  47. Haemonchus contortus
    • Haemonchus sp
    • bottle jaw
    • Trichostrongylus sp
    • abomasal worm
    • Strongylus vulgaris, edentaus, and equinus
    • intestinal worm
    • Strongylus vulgaris
    • blood worm
    • intestinal worm of horses
    • Strongyloides westeri (horses)
    • Strongyloides ransomi (pigs)
    • Strongyloides papillosus (cattle)
    • Intestinal threadworms
    • Skin ulcers from Habronema and Draschia
    • "cutaneous habronemiasis"
    • "summer sores"
    • Oxyuris equi
    • pinworm eggs are found around anus
    • Parascaris equorum
    • equine roundworm or ascarid
    • Ascaris suum
    • swine roundworm, swine ascarid
    • Ascaridia spp
    • ascarids of birds
    • Baylisascaris procyonis on left
    • Toxocara canis on right
    • Trichuris ovis
    • Trichuris suis
    • whipworm of ruminants and swine
    • Onchocerca cervicalis
    • equine filarial worm
    • "cutaneous onchocerciasis" - alopecia, skin scaling in nuchal ligament
    • Eyeworms
    • Thelazia spp - ruminants
    • Thelazia lacrymalis - equine
    • Trichinella spiralis
    • trichina worm
    • porcine intermediate host

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