Card Set Information
Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience.
stage fright (9)
A hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress.
Controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for her or his presentation.
positive nervousness (10)
Mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation.
Focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion.
critical thinking (16)
The person who is presenting an oral message to a listener.
Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else.
The means by which a message is communicated.
The person who receives the speaker’s message.
The sum of a person’s knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. No two people can have exactly the same frame of reference.
frame of reference (19)
The messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker.
Anything that impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal to listeners.
The time and place in which speech communication occurs.
The belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures.
The branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs.
Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines.
ethical decisions (31)
The use of language to defame, demean, or degrade individuals or groups.
The first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution.
Bill of Rights (35)
Presenting another person’s language or ideas as one’s own.
Stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one’s own.
global plagiarism (37)
Stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one’s own.
patchwork plagiarism (38)
Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people.
incremental plagiarism (38)
To restate or summarize an author’s ideas in one’s own words.
The vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain.
Paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear.
Listening for pleasure or enjoyment.
appreciative listening (49)
Listening to provide emotional support for a speaker.
empathic listening (49)
Listening to understand the message of a speaker.
comprehensive listening (49)
Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it.
critical listening (49)
The difference between the rate at which most people talk (120 to 150 words a minute) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400 to 800 words a minute).
spare “brain time” (50)
Giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker’s point of view.
active listening (53)
An outline that briefly notes a speaker’s main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form.
key-word outline (59)
A speech early in the term designed to get students speaking in front of the class as soon as possible.
ice breaker speech (64)
The opening section of a speech.
The main section of a speech.
A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern.
chronological order (66)
A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.
topical order (66)
The major points developed in the body of a speech.
main points (67)
A word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another.
The final section of a speech.
A carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes.
extemporaneous speech (68)
Motions of a speaker’s hands or arms during a speech.
Direct visual contact with the eyes of another person.
eye contact (70)
The subject of a speech.
A method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas.
The broad goal of a speech.
general purpose (82)
A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.
specific purpose (82)
A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.
central idea (89)
What a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech.
residual message (89)