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Durkheim - Discoveries on Suicide
Said that married, people with kids, catholics and jews all had LOWER suicide rates.
3rd world countries and people in the country had high suicide rates.
Because areas with more people will have less suicides due to social interaction.
Structural - Functional paradigm
- The idea that society is made up of interrelated parts that work together. Scialization is necessary to operate.
Example: Afghanistan war was necessary because it further prevented terrorists from coming here to harm more people and themselves.
Family: it regulates the population by replacing the dead people with new children.
Social - Conflict paradigm
Society is a continuous arena of inequality and struggle. Master race persona.
example: rich vs. poor, white vs. African American.
For family: It boils down to sexes, males are the bread winners, therefor women should stay home and serve traditional roles.
Symbolic - Interaction Paradigm
They see sociiety as a product of every day interaction of individuals. Attaching symbols to everyday things.
Example: might view each person's personality in a family as a product of their family's upbringing.
Variable (Independent or dependent)
An element that can vary or change.
- Independent - changes on own.
- Dependent - manipulated by the experimenter.
True experiment (independent and dependent variables)
Highly controlled experiments.
that include variables, both manipulated and non for the sake of a stronger experiment.
The degree to which two variables are related
When one variable increases, the other increases.
Example: When you get taller, you gain more weight.
When one variable increases, the other decreases.
Example: When you drink more alcohol, you lose more motor function.
How are subjects selected
To collect data using questionaires or interviews.
To select the subjects - lottery, from the area or group you're studying, trying to generalize the pop.
- Strength - large amounts of data, inexpensive
- Weaknesses - people lie
Observing people or animals in their natural habitat.
For people: we observe kids in classrooms to see their interaction with others, we watch for bulling.
For animals: we look at how they use tools similar to ours.
When we participate in the studies.
Selecting subjects that represent the population you are studying.
A research method consisting of a series of questions in order to collect data or facts.
A meeting or conversation where one person evaluates or consults another.
The world population is 7 billion.
The US population is 317 million
Somalia's population is 10.3 million
What is the Hawthorne Effect
When you observe others, they change their actions.
using Existing sources
To use the census, databases, or police websites.
The distinguishable line between acceptable and non acceptable behavior while conducting research.
Ex: Syphillis study and Stanford Prison study
The average of a group of numbers. Achieved by taking all numbers and adding up and dividing by however many numbers you have.
The middle number. The number that occurs in the middle of a group of numbers. This is the most reliable in a group for experiments.
The number that occurs the most.
The average number of children a woman can bare. More than 20.
The number of children a woman CAN have.
Reduced by LIFE
Crude birth rate
The number of live births per 1000 in the population.
Crude death rate
The number of deaths per 1000 in the population.
The number of people moving in and the number of people moving out.
Natural growth rate
A country's crude death rate minus the birth rate
What was it
Why hasn't it occurred?
Malthusian thought the population would exceed food production, thus riots would ensue.
Hasn't occurred, because high income countries aren't having as many kids b/c of technology.
and because with technology we were able to industrialize and provide more food.
Physical things related to culture, like clothing.
Non-physical things related to culture, like music or religion.
What are the components of culture:
Things that make up ones culture, such as language, non-verbal communications (middle finger), written gestures (lol), and norms.
What is it?
Language shapes the reality of a culture. To have more words for something helps shape it better.
Example: Someone has more than 15 ways to describe ice.
Zarabavel Theory on Words
What is it?
Having two names for the same thing gives different meaning to it.
What are they?
Established standards of behavior maintained by society.
Also see mores and folkways.
Rules that are highly necessary for the welfare of society.
Ex: Don't kill, rape, etc.
Things you should conform to, but don't have to.
Example: J-walking, wearing white to a wedding.
Preindustrial (Hunting and gathering)
Occurred before industry and tractors.
Until 1800, most of the world was made up of hunters and gatherers, they were nomadic.
People who move based on seasonality (food, weather, animals)
Consequently, they did not have wealth or objects.
Horticulture and Pastoralism(settlers)
The domestication of plants or animals. First began 10,000-12,000 years ago.
People now began to build wealth and rulers started appearing.
Agriculture Era ***
The industrial industry began to boom, the first plow came to light.
Food, more money, and goods were stockpiled.
Specialties came about, jump starting the service industry.
SOCIAL INEQUALITY TURNING POINT. If one person has a lot, another does not.
Factories and mass production began.
Social inequalities grew larger, and injustices grew for workers. A lot of abuse and work place dependencies came about.
Ex: upton sinclair's in the jungle
Post Industrial age
Now. The service industry.
We're service based and manufacture less goods, we entertain more.
What is it?
judging other cultures using the standards of our culture.
Example: Europeans view the death penalty as wrong. We view bull fighting as wrong.
judging a culture by that culture's standards. Right and wrong are culture specific.
Gross Domestic Product
The total amount of one country's goods and services in one year.
- US - 15.7 Tril
- Somalia - 2.4 bil
Gross domestic product per cap
The total of one country's goods and products in one year divided by the number of citizens in the country.
- For Somalia, the GDP per cap is $600.
- US - $51,700
GDP PER CAP ranges
- High >12000
- Middle 2500 to 12000
- Low below 2500
Skeels and Dye (1939)
- The study of institutionalized mentally challenged children.
- - Children had brief interactions, and were thought of as unadoptable.
- - Gave 13 babies to mentally challenged women and compared to a control group. Women "adopted" the babies.
- - "adopted" infants gained 28 IQ points, control group lost 30 IQ points.
- -Adoptees had grade 12 educations, 11 married, control had 2nd grade educations, 1 married. SOCIALIZATION IS IMPORTANT.
What we teach our kids to survive in society.
Everything we pass on from one generation to the next.