Chapter 10

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Chapter 10
2014-03-04 11:54:20
Exploring Medical Language 8th edition Lafleur

Cardiovascular, Immune, Lymphatic Systems and Blood
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  1. Define

    • muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist
    • located behind the sternum (breast bone) and between the lungs
    • the pumping action of the heart circulates blood throughout the body
    • the heart consists of two upper chambers right and left atriums
    • and two lower chambers, right and left ventricles
    • the right atrium receives blood returning from the body through the veins
    • the left atrium recieves blood from the lungs
    • the left ventricle pumps blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue
    • the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs
    • the atrial septum separates the atria
    • the ventricular septum separates the ventricles
  2. Define

    atrioventricular valves
    • consist of the tricuspid valve which lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle
    • and the mitral (or bicuspid) valve which lies between the left atrium and left ventricle
    • valves of the heart keep blood flowing in one direction
  3. Define

    semilunar valves
    • pulmonary semilunar valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
    • aortic semilunar valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta
  4. Define

    • two layer sacs surrounding the heart
    • external fibrous layer
    • internal serous layer
    • The serous layer secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart
    • It consists of two layers:
    • one lining the fibrous pericardium
    • and one covering the heart, called epicardium
  5. Name and Define

    the three layers of the heart
    • epicardium - covers the heart
    • myocardium - middle, thick muscular layer
    • endocardium - inner lining of the heart
  6. Define

    blood vessels
    tube like structures that carry blood throughout the body
  7. Define

    • blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
    • all arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygen and other nutrients from the heart to the body cells
    • the pulmonary artery, in contrast, carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the heart to the lungs
  8. Define

    smallest arteries
  9. Define

    • largest artery in the body
    • originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen
  10. Define

    • blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
    • all veins, with the exception of the pulmonary veins, carry blood containing carbon dioxide CO2 and other waste products
    • the pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
  11. Define

    smallest veins
  12. Name and Define

    Plural: venae cavae
    • largest veins in the body
    • the inferior vena cava carries blood to the heart from body parts located below the diaphragm
    • the superior vena cava returns blood to the heart from the upper part of the body (located above the diaphragm)
    • * vena cava is singular
  13. Define

    • microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules
    • materials are passed between the blood and tissue through the capillary walls
  14. Define

    • composed of plasm and formed elements (cells) such as
    • erythrocytes
    • leukocytes
    • thrombocytes (platelets)
  15. Define

    • clear, straw colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended
    • plasma is approximately 90% water and comprises approximately 66% of the total blood volume
  16. Define

    cells (formed elements) - erythrocytes
    • red blood cells that carry oxygen
    • erythrocytes (RBC)  develop in bone marrow
  17. Define

    cells (formed elements) - leukocytes
    • white blood cells (WBC) that combat infection and respond to inflammation
    • there are five types of white blood cells:
    • Neutrophil
    • Eosinophil
    • Basophil
    • Lymphocyte
    • Monocyte

    *don't need to know the names for test
  18. Define
    cells (formed elements) -
    thrombocytes / platelets
    one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process
  19. Define

    clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed
  20. name the three formed elements of which blood is composed
    • erythrocytes
    • leukocytes
    • thrombocytes (platelets)
  21. Define

    • transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system, is called lymph
    • lymph contains lymphocytes and monocytes and flows in a one-way direction to the heart
    • lymph is similar to blood plasma
  22. Define

    lymphatic vessels
    • similar to veins
    • lymphatic vessels transport lymph from body tissues to the chest, where it enters the cardiovascular system
    • the vessels begin as capillaries spread throughout the body then merge into larger tubes that eventually become ducts in the chest
    • they provide a one-way flow for lymph are gathered from the tissues to ducts in the chest, where lymph enters through veins into the circulatory system
  23. Define

    lymph nodes
    • small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue
    • they may be singular or grouped together along the path of the lymph vessels
    • the nodes filter lymph to keep substances such as bacteria and other foreign agents from entering the blood
    • they also produce lymphocytes
  24. Define

    • located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm
    • in adulthood, the spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the body
    • blood, rather than lymph flows through the spleen
    • blood is cleansed of microorganisms in the spleen
    • the spleen stores blood and destroys worn out red blood cells
  25. Define

    thymus gland
    • one of the primary lymphatic organs
    • it is located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum between the lungs
    • it plays an important role in the development of the body's immune system, particularly from infancy to puberty
    • around puberty the thymus gland atrophies so that most of the gland is connective tissue
  26. what is the function of the immune system
    • protect the body against:
    • pathogens
    • bacteria, fungi, viruses
    • foreign agents that cause allergic reactions
    • like peanuts
    • toxins
    • like insect bites
    • abnormal body cells
    • like cancer
  27. What are the three lines of defense used by the immune system
    • chemical/mechanical barries
    • ear wax and saliva
    • ways to battle disease
    • natural killer cells (NK)
    • phagocytes
    • inflammation and fever
    • protective proteins
    • specific immunity
    • antibodies which provide protection against specific pathogens like polio virus such as
    • T-cells
    • B-cells
  28. the immune system does not have its own organs and body structures, it depends on them from other body systems.  name the  five organs and structures from other body systems that it uses
    • spleen
    • liver
    • intestinal tract
    • lymph nodes
    • bone marrow
  29. angi/o
    combining form

    vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)
  30. aort/o
    combining form

  31. arteri/o
    combining form

  32. atri/o
    combining form

  33. cardi/o
    combining form

  34. lymph/o
    combining form

    • lymph
    • lymph tissue
  35. lymphaden/o
    combining form

    lymph node
  36. myel/o

    *Note, myel/o also means spinal cord as you will see in chapter 15
    combining form

    bone marrow
  37. phleb/o

    combining form

  38. plasm/o
    combining form

  39. splen/o

    *watch the correct spelling for these words, two letters 'e' in spleen, but only one 'e' in the word root splen/o
    combining form

  40. thym/o
    combining form

    thymus gland
  41. valv/o

    combining form

  42. ventricul/o
    combining form

  43. ather/o

    *watch correct pronunciation, sounds more like other than arthur
    combining form

    yellowish, fatty plaque
  44. ech/o
    combining form

  45. electr/o
    combining form

    • electricity
    • electrical activity
  46. isch/o

    *think defischiency
    combining form

    • deficiency
    • blockage
  47. therm/o
    combining form

  48. thromb/o
    combining form

  49. brady-

  50. -ac

    pertaining to
  51. -apheresis

    *think, apher (after) its gone

  52. -graph

    • instrument used to record
    • record
  53. -penia

    abnormal reduction in number
  54. -poiesis

    *think forming something out of poi

  55. -sclerosis

  56. compare

    • -graph is the instrument used to record (the machine like a telegraph or electrocardiograph)
    • -graph also means record, as in radiograph (x-ray)
    • -graphy is the process of recording, the act of setting down or registering a record as in photography or electroencephalography
    • -gram is the record (picture, radiographic image, or tracing) like a telegram or electrocardiogram
  57. angi/oma
    tumor composed of blood vessels
  58. angi/o/stenosis
    narrowing of a blood vessel
  59. aort/ic  stenosis
    • narrowing, pertaining to aorta
    • narrowing of the aortic valve
  60. arteri/o/sclerosis

    *Note, do not confuse with atherosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries
  61. ather/o/sclerosis

    *Note, do not confuse with arteriosclerosis
    • hardening of fatty plaque
    • deposited on the arterial wall
  62. brady/card/ia

    *Note, the 'i' in cardi/o word root has been dropped -- the suffix is -ia, not -a
    • condition of a slow heart
    • rate less than 60 beats per minute
  63. cardi/o/megaly
    enlargement of the heart
  64. cardi/o/my/o/pathy
    disease of the heart muscle
  65. end/o/card/itis
    • inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
    • particularly heart valves
  66. isch/emia
    deficiency of blood (flow)
  67. my/o/card/itis
    inflammation of the muscle of the heart
  68. peri/card/itis
    inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart
  69. phleb/itis
    inflammation of a vein
  70. poly/arter/itis

    *Note, the 'i' in arteri/o has been dropped
    inflammation of many (sites in the) arteries
  71. tachy/card/ia

    *Note, the 'i' in cardi/o has been dropped
    • condition of a rapid heart
    • rate more than 100 beats per minute
  72. thromb/o/phleb/itis
    inflammation of a vein associated with a clot
  73. valvul/itis
    inflammation of a valve (of the heart)
  74. hemat/oma
    • tumor of blood
    • collection of blood resulting from a broken blood vessel
    • *not really a tumor, but more like a very bad blood bruise, can be flat or raised or swollen (pooling of blood)
  75. multiple myel/om
    tumors of the bone marrow
  76. pan/cyt/o/penia
    abnormal reduction of all (blood) cells
  77. thromb/osis
    abnormal condition of a (blood) clot
  78. thromb/us
    (blood) clot (attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein)
  79. compare embolus and thrombus, how are they similar and different
    • a thrombus is a clot that is attached to the interior wall of a vessel
    • an embolus circulates (or is moving) in the bloodstream until it becomes lodged in a vessel
  80. lymphaden/itis
    inflammation of the lymph nodes
  81. lymphaden/o/pathy
    • disease of the lymph nodes
    • characterized by abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes associated with an infection or malignancy
  82. lymph/oma
    tumor of lymphatic tissue (malignant)
  83. splen/o/megaly
    enlargement of the spleen
  84. thym/oma
    tumor of the thymus gland
  85. acute coronary syndrome
    • sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction
    • *ACS is an umbrella term used when a patient seeks care at an ER for symptoms of acute angina or myocardial infarction not yet diagnosed.  treatment includes rapid assessment to determine the diagnosis and treatment of symptoms to possible minimize heart damage
  86. aneurysm
    ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
  87. angina pectoris
    • chest pain
    • which may radiate to the left arm and jaw
    • occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle
  88. arrhythmia

    *watch for correct spelling
    any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
  89. atrial fibrillation (AFib)
    • a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria
    • the atria quiver instead of contracting, causing irregular ventricular response and the ejection of a reduced amount of blood
    • the blood that remains in the atria becomes static, increasing the risk of clot formation which may lead to a stroke
    • two types of AFib are
    • paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) which is intermittent, and
    • chronic atrial fibrillation which is sustained
  90. cardiac arrest
    sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
  91. cardiac tamponade
    acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity
  92. coarctation of the aorta
    congenital cardiac condition characterized y a narrowing of the aorta
  93. congenital heart disease
    heart abnormality present at birth
  94. congestive heart failure (CHF)

    also called heart failure (HF)
    • inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen
    • coronary artery disease is a common cause of heart failure
  95. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    • a condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to the myocardium
    • denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function fully
    • most often caused by coronary athersclerosis (hardening of the fatty plaque)
  96. coronary occlusion
    • obstruction of an artery of the heart
    • usually from atherosclerosis (hardening of fatty plaque)
    • coronary occlusion can lead to acute myocardial infarction
  97. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    • condition of thrombus (attached clot, not moving) in a deep vein of the body
    • most often occurs in the lower extremities
    • a clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism (when its moving, unattached)
  98. hypertensive heart disease (HHD)
    disorder of the heart caused by persistent high blood pressure
  99. intermittent claudication
    • pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking
    • a condition seen in peripheral arterial disease
  100. mitral valve stenosis
    • a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring
    • usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
  101. myocardial infarction (MI)

    also called heart attack
    death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by a lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply
  102. peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

    also called peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
    • disease of the arteries in the arms and legs
    • resulting in narrowing or complete obstruction of the artery
    • this is caused most commonly by athersclerosis, but occasionaly by inflammatory diseases, emboli, or thrombus formation
    • the most common symptom of peripheral arterial disease is intermittent claudication
  103. rheumatic heart disease
    damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever
  104. varicose veins
    distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremnties

    *caused by an incompetent (leaky) semilunar valve
  105. anemia
    • reduction in the number of red blood cells
    • anemia may be caused by blood loss or
    • decrease in the production or
    • increase in the destruction of red blood cells
  106. embolus
    plural: emboli
    blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation
  107. hemophilia
    • inherited bleeding disease
    • most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII
  108. leukemia
    malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow
  109. sepsis

    also called septicemia
    • a condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the loodstream
    • causing a systemic inflammatory response to the infection
  110. Hodgkin disease
    • malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue
    • characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph notes
    • usually beginning in the cervical nodes
  111. infectious mononucleosis
    • an acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus
    • characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever
    • the disease affects mostly young people, and is usually transmitted by saliva
  112. angi/o/plasty
    surgical repair of a blood vessel
  113. ather/ectomy
    • excision of fatty plaque
    • from a blocked artery using a specialized catheter and a rotary cutter
  114. end/arter/ectomy
    • excision within the artery
    • excision of plaque from the arterial wall
    • this procedure is usually named for the artery to be cleaned out, such as
    • carotid endarterectomy, which means removal of plaque from the wall of the carotid artery
  115. peri/cardi/o/centesis
    • surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium)
    • used to remove fluid or air
    • usually to relieve cardiac tamponade
  116. phleb/ectomy
    excision of a vein
  117. valul/o/plasty
    • surgical repair of a valve
    • cardiac or venous
  118. splen/ectomy
    excision of the spleen
  119. splen/o/pexy
    surgical fixation of the spleen
  120. thym/ectomy
    excision of the thymus gland
  121. aneurysmectomy

    *not built from word parts
    surgical excision of an aneurysm
  122. atrial fibrillation ablation
    a procedure in which abnormal cells that trigger atrial fibrillation are destroyed by using radiofrequency energy
  123. cardiac pacemaker
    • battery powered apparatus implanted under the sking with leads placed on the heart, or in the chamber of the heart
    • used to treat an abnormal heart rhythm, usually one that is too slow
    • secondary to an abnormal sinus node
  124. coronary artery bypass graft
    surgical technique to bring new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries
  125. coronary stent
    • a supportive scaffold device placed in the coronary artery
    • used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy
    • used to treat an artery occluded (to close, or bring together) by plaque

    *Note, the word stent is not related to the term stenosis
  126. embolectomy
    • surgical removal of an embolus or clot
    • usually with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon beyond the clot, them pulling the balloon back to the incision an bringing the clot with it.
  127. femor/o/poplit/eal  bypass
    surgery to establish an alternate route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction
  128. implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD)
    • a device implanted in the body that continuously monitors the heart rhythm
    • if life- threatening arrhythmias occur, the device delivers an electric shock to convert the arrhythmia back to a normal rhythm
  129. intracoronary thrombolytic therapy
    an injection of a medication either intravenously or intraarterially to dissolve blood clots in the coronary arteries
  130. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

    also called balloon angioplasty
    • procedure in which a balloon is passed through a blood vessel into a coronary artery to the area where plaque is formed
    • inflation of the balloon compreses the plaque against the vessel wall, expanding the inner diameter of the blood vessel
    • which allows the blood to circulate more freely
  131. bone marrow aspiration
    • a syringe is used to aspirate a sample of the liquid portion of the bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study
    • used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells
  132. bone marrow biopsy
    • a needle puncture to obtain a sample of bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study
    • used to diagnose, stage and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells
  133. bone marrow transplant
    infusion of healthy bone marrow cells from a donor with matching cells and tissue to a recipient
  134. angi/o/graphy
    • radiographic imaging of blood vessels
    • the procedure is named for the vessel to be studied
    • for example: femoral angiography or coronary angiography
  135. angi/o/scope
    instrument used for visual examination (of the lumen*) of  blood vessel

    *lumen: The space in the interior of a hollow tubular structure (artery or intestine).
  136. angi/o/scopy
    visual examination (of the lumen) of a blood vessel
  137. aort/o/gram
    radiographic image of the aorta (after an injection of contrast media)
  138. arteri/o/gram
    radiographic image of an artery (after an injection of contrast media)
  139. ven/o/gram
    radiographic image of a vein (after an injection of contrast media)
  140. ven/o/graphy
    radiographic imaging of a vein (after an injection of contrast media)
  141. echo/cardi/o/gram (ECHO)
    • record of the heart
    • (structure and motion)
    • using sound
    • (used to detect valvular disease and evaluate heart function)
  142. electr/o/cardi/o/gram (ECG, EKG)
    record of the electrical activity of the heart
  143. electr/o/cardi/o/graph
    instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart
  144. electr/o/cardi/o/graphy
    process of recording the electrical activity of the heart
  145. digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
    a process of digital radiographic imaging of the blood vessels that "subtracts" or removes structures not being studied
  146. Doppler ultrasound
    • a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels
    • used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities
  147. exercise stress test
    • a study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill
    • electrocardiography, echocardiography, and nuclear medicine scanning are three types of tests performed to measure cardiac function while exercising
  148. single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
    • a nuclear medicine scan that visualizes the heart from several different angles
    • a radioactive tracer substance such as sestamibi or thallium is injected intravenously
    • the SPECT scanner creates images from the tracer absorbed by the body tissues
    • it is used to assess damage to cardiac tissue
  149. thallium test
    • nuclear medicine test used to diagnose coronary artery disease and assess revascularization after coronary artery bypass surgery
    • thallium, a radioactive isotope, is injected into the body intravenously
    • a radiation detector is placed over the heart and images are recorded
    • thallium is taken up by the normal myocardial cells, but not in ischemia (deficiency of blood flow) or infarction (An area of tissue necrosis caused by impairment of arterial or venous blood supply due to mechanical factors (emboli, thrombi) or to blood pressure alterations)
    • these areas are identified as "cold" spots on the images produced
    • thallium testing can be performed when the patient is at rest or it can be part of a stress test
  150. transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)
    an ultrasound test that examines cardiac function and structure by using an ultrasound probe placed in the esophagus, which provides views of the heart structures
  151. cardiac catheterization

    also called coronary angiography
    • an examination to determine the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels
    • a catheter is passed into the heart through a blood vessel and is used to record pressures and inject a contrast medium
    • enbline the visualization of the coronary arteries, great vessels, and the heart chambers
    • used most frequently by evaluate chest pain and coronary artery disease
  152. impedance plethysmography (IPG)
    • measures venous flow of the extremities with a plethysmograph to detect clots by measuring changes in blood volume and resistance (impedance) in the vein
    • used to detect deep vein thrombosis
  153. blood pressure (BP)
    • pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls
    • blood pressure measurement written as systolic [contraction of the heart, especially of the ventricles]pressure (120)
    • and diastolic [Normal post-systolic dilation of the heart cavities, during which they fill with blood; diastole of the atria precedes that of the ventricles; diastole of either chamber alternates rhythmically with systole or contraction of that chamber] pressure (80)
    • is commonly recorded as 120/80
  154. pulse
    • the rhythmic expansion of an artery that can be felt with a finger
    • the pulse is most commonly felt over the radial artery
    • however the pulsations can be felt over a number of sites, including the femoral and carotid arteries
  155. sphygmomanometer

    *will be a spelling word
    device used for measuring blood pressure
  156. coagulation time
    blood test to determine the time it takes for blood to form a clot
  157. complete blood count (CBC)
    differential count (Diff)
    • basic blood screening that measures hemoglobin
    • hematocrit
    • RBC number and morphology (size and shape)
    • WBC count
    • and WBC differential (types of white blood cells)
    • platelet count
    • the test is automated, thus done easily and rapidly,
    • and provides a tremendous amount of information about the blood
  158. hematocrit (HCT)
    • a blood test to measure the volume of red blood cells
    • it is used in the diagnosis and evaluation of anemic patients
  159. hemoglobin (Hgb)
    blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components (hemoglobin) in red blood cells
  160. prothrombin time (PT)
    • blood test used to determine certain coagulation activity defects
    • and to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients taking Coumadin, an oral anticoagulant medication
    • activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT) is used to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients taking heparin, an intravenous anticoagulant medication)
  161. atri/o/ventricul/ar
    pertaining to the atrium and ventricle
  162. cardi/ac
    pertaining to the heart
  163. cardi/o/genic
    originating in the heart
  164. cardi/o/logist
    physician who studies and treats diseases of the heart
  165. cardi.o.logy
    • study of the heart
    • a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the heart and blood vessels
  166. hypo/therm/ia
    • condition of (body) temperature that is below (normal)
    • sometimes induced for various surgical procedures, such as bypass surgery
  167. intra/ven/ous (IV)
    pertaining to within the vein
  168. phleb/o/logist
    physician who studies and treats diseases of the veins
  169. phleb/o/logy
    • study of veins
    • a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the veins
  170. hemat/o/logist
    physician who studies and treats diseases of the blood
  171. hemat/o/logy
    • study of the blood
    • a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the blood
  172. hemat/o/poiesis
    formation of blood (cells)
  173. hem/o/lysis
    dissolution of (red) blood (cells)
  174. hemat/o/stasis
    stoppage of bleeding
  175. myel/o/poiesis
    formation of bone marrow
  176. plasma/pheresis
    removal of plasma (from withdrawn blood)
  177. thromb/o/lysis
    dissolution of a clot
  178. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    emergency procedure consisting of artificial ventilation and external cardiac massage
  179. defibrillation
    application of an electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm
  180. explain the difference between atrial fibrillation (Afib) and defibrillation and fibrillation
    • Afib is an disturbance in the normal cardiac rhythm (a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria)
    • defibrillation means to apply an external electric shock to restore normal cardiac rhythm

    • *swap the 'a' and 'd' to help remember
    • afib - disturbance
    • defib - apply shock

    fibrillation is simply crazy movement, (rapid, quivering, non-coordinated contractions of the atria or ventricles)
  181. diastole
    • phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax between contractions
    • diastolic is the lower number of a blood pressure reading

    *diastole is down - 'down time' for the heart and the 'down' number on the blood pressure measurement - systole is the opposite
  182. systole
    • phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract
    • systolic is the upper number of a blood pressure reading

    *think systole swings up - time when heart 'swings' into action and the 'up'per number of the blood pressure measurement - diastole is the opposite
  183. extracorporeal
    • occurring outside the body
    • during open hert surgery extracorporeal circulation occurs when blood is diverted outside the body to a heart-lung machine

    *extra- means without, or outside of
  184. extravasation
    escape of blood from the blood vessel into the tissue

    *extra- means without, or outside of
  185. fibrillation
    rapid, quivering, non-coordinated contractions of the atria or ventricles
  186. heart murmur
    a short-duration humming sound of cardiac or vascular origin
  187. hypercholesterolemia

    *not really built from word parts, but they can help you to remember the meaning
    • excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood
    • associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular disease
  188. hyperlipidemia

    *not really built from word parts, but they can help you to remember the meaning
    excessive amount of fats (triglycerides and cholesterol) in the blood
  189. hypertension

    *not really built from word parts, but they can help you to remember the meaning
    • blood pressure that is above normal
    • greater than 140/90
  190. hypertriglyceridemia

    *not really built from word parts, but they can help you to remember the meaning
    • excessive amount of triglycerides in the blood
    • associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease
  191. hypotension

    *not really built from word parts, but they can help you to remember the meaning
    • blood pressure that is below normal
    • less than 90/60
  192. lipids
    • fats and fatlike substances that
    • serve as a source of fuel in the body and are
    • an important constituent of cell structure
  193. lumen
    • space within a tubular part or organ
    • such as the space within a blood vessel
  194. occlude
    • to close tightly
    • to block
  195. vasoconstrictor
    agent or nerve that narrows the blood vessels
  196. vasodilator
    agent or nerve that enlarges the blood vessels
  197. venipuncture
    • puncture of a vein to remove blood
    • instill a medication
    • or start an intravenous infusion
  198. anticoagulant

    *the opposite of a coagulant
    agent that slows the blood clotting process
  199. blood dyscrasia
    abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood

    *crazy blood
  200. hemorrhage

    *not really built from word parts, but they can help you to remember the meaning
    rapid loss of blood, as in bleeding
  201. allergen
    • an environmental substance capable of producing and immediate hypersensitivity in the body (allergy)
    • common allergens are house dust, pollen, animal dander, and various foods
  202. allergist
    a physician who studies and treats allergic conditions
  203. allergy
    hypersensitivity to a substance, resulting in an inflammatory immune response
  204. anaphylaxis

    also called anaphylactin shock
    • an exaggerated, life-threatening reaction to  a previously encountered antigen (not allergen) such as
    • bee venom
    • peanuts or
    • laytex
    • symptoms range from mild, with patients experiencing hives or sneezing
    • to severe such as a drop in blood pressure and blockage of the airway which can lead to death within minutes
  205. antibody

    also called immunoglobulins
    a substance produced by lymphocytes that inactivates or destroys antigens
  206. antigen
    • a substance that triggers an immune response when introduced into the body
    • examples are transplant tissue
    • toxins
    • and infectious organisms
  207. contrast and compare allergen, allergy, antigen, and antibody
    • allergen - environmental substance capable of producing an allergy
    • allergy - hypersensitivity to a substance
    • antigen - substance that triggures an immune response after introduced to the body
    • antibody - produced by the body which inactivates or destroys antigens
  208. autoimmune disease
    • a disease caused by the body's inability to distinguish its own cells from foreign bodies
    • thus producing antibodies that attach its own tissue
    • rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are examples of autoimmune diseases
  209. immune
    being resistant to specific invading pathogens

    • immunity occurs in three ways:
    • natural immunity - between mother and child before birth and thru breast milk after birth
    • active immunity - body produces antibodies after having a specific disease
    • artificial immunity - body produces antibodies after receiving a vaccine
  210. immunodeficiency
    • deficient immune response caused by the immune system dysfunction brought on by
    • disease (HIV infection) or
    • immunosuppressive drugs (prednisone)
  211. immunologist
    a physician who studies and treats immune system disorders
  212. immunology
    the branch of medicine dealing with immune system disorders
  213. phagocytosis
    a process in which some of the white blood cells destroy the invading microorganism and old cells

    the mortal remains after the battle is pus
  214. vaccine
    a suspension of inactivated microorganisms administered by injection, mouth, or nasal spry to prevent infectious diseases by inducing immunity