Psy 201 Ch 2 Set B: Threats to Validity and Ethics

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Psy 201 Ch 2 Set B: Threats to Validity and Ethics
2014-02-25 20:42:55

Exam 2
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  1. What is validity?
    something doing what it says it's doing; two types: internal and external
  2. internal validity
    research study supports clear casual conclusions; make sure you are not making faulty conclusions
  3. Threats to validity (internal)
    confounding of variable, placebo effect, experimenter expectancy effects
  4. confounding of variables
    variables are intertwined; cannot determine which influenced the dependent variable
  5. placebo effect
    people receiving a treatment show a change in behavior; not because the treatment itself had any specific effect
  6. placebo
    substance that has no pharmacological effect
  7. experimenter expectancy effect
    an experimenter (unintentionally) influences participants' responses in a manner that is consistent with the researcher's hypothesis
  8. Avoid experimenter expectancy effects by:
    using a double-bind: where it's the researcher who interacts with the subjects, nor are the subjects told about which condition (experimental or control) they are in
  9. Threats to external validity
    Generalizability of the study's results; can results be generalized to others; replication
  10. Ethical Issues/Principles in Psychological Research
    Ethical standard in research prescribed by law; safeguard the rights of participants
  11. Ethical prinicples
    apply to both human and animal research; administered by review boards
  12. Ethical Principles: Human Research
    informed consent, maintain confidentiality, can use deception, free of harm
  13. informed consent
    participants need to have information: purpose and procedures, potential risks, decline to participate or withdraw, info to perform risk/benefit analysis
  14. maintain confidentiality
    must maintain privacy; use info only for purpose intended
  15. can use deception
    ONLY when no other feasible alternative is available; benefits MUST outweigh the cost of deceiving
  16. free of harm
    physical and psychological; need to provide some explanation for how it will be handled