Psy Ch 3 Set B: The Nervous System

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nisab44
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263994
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Psy Ch 3 Set B: The Nervous System
Updated:
2014-02-25 21:58:34
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psychology
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Exam 2
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  1. Peripheral Nervous System
    contains all the neural structures that lie outside of the brain and spinal cord; two divisions: somatic and autonomic nervous systems
  2. somatic nervous system
    a system of sensory and motor neurons that sense and respond to our environment; controls the voluntary movements of skeletal system
  3. autonomic nervous system
    a system that senses the body's internal functions; controls many glands and smooth muscles; involuntary activities of your internal organs; two divisions: sympathetic division/nervous systems and parasympathetic division/nervous system
  4. sympathetic division
    activation or arousal function (fight or flight); when you are intensely aroused (emergency situation occurs); heart begins to pound, your breathing quickens, and perspire
  5. parasympathetic division
    slows down the body; maintains a state of internal equilibrium; causes the opposite of sympathetic changes; homeostasis
  6. homeostasis
    a delicately balanced or steady internal state
  7. Central Nervous System
    composed of two parts: spinal cord and brain
  8. spinal cord
    connects most parts of the peripheral nervous system with the brain; a densely packed bundle of nerve fibers; handles simple reflexes; everything going to brain must pass through spinal cord
  9. brain
    three major subdivisions of the brain: hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
  10. hindbrain
    contains brain stem, medulla, pons, cerebellum, and reticular formation (RF)
  11. brain stem
    supports vital life functions
  12. medulla
    life sustaining functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing and respiration (breathing)
  13. pons
    "bridge"; higher and lower levels of the nervous system; plays a crucial role in triggering dreams; produces chemicals that help maintain the sleep-wake cycle
  14. cerebellum
    called the "little brain"; concerned with muscular movement-coordination, learning, and memory; contains more neurons than rest of brain; regulates movements requiring precise timing; threading a needle, dancing, playing an instrument, surgery, athletics, etc.
  15. ataxia
    drunken state; when cerebellum is affected; balance and coordination functions are easily disrupted by alcohol (boxing, drugs...etc)
  16. Reticular Formation (RF) [aka Reticular Activating System (RAS)]
    alerts you that messages are coming then either blocks or allows those messages; also signals importance of message; plays a role in arousal and attention; tones down during sleep; leads to activity in locus coeruleus
  17. locus coeruleus
    small nucleus in RF/RAS
  18. If RF/RAS is damaged
    sleep-like coma state; abnormalities linked to ADHD, depression, sleep disorders and PTSD
  19. Midbrain
    contains clusters of sensory and motor nucleus; important for hearing and sight; particularly auditory and visual reflexes; one place where pain is registered; keeps eyes focused on object while moving your head; allows you to reflexively turn your head; smooth beginning of movements
  20. Forebrain
    the brain's most advanced portion from an evolutionary standpoint; parts: thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system; and cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres)
  21. thalamus
    two egg-shaped structures; functions like a "switchboard"; organizes inputs from sensory organs; sends to appropriate areas of the brain; sensory relay center or station/switchboard; relays pain signals from spinal cord
  22. hypothalamus
    plays major role in: hunger, thirst, body temperature and sex drive; connected to ANS - reactions to stress; connected to endocrine system; two parts: lateral and ventromedial
  23. lateral hypothalamus (LH)
    tells you to eat/drink
  24. ventromedial hypothalamus (VH)
    tells you to stop eating/drinking
  25. limbic system
    plays role in emotional behavior; three parts: hippocampus, amygdala, and septum
  26. hippocampus
    "seahorse" - involved in forming and retrieving memories; particularly new memories; Alzheimer's disease
  27. amygdala
    "almond" - formation of emotional memories; self-preservation (aggression); fear
  28. septum
    plearsure (equivalent to "O" word); anger suppression
  29. cerebrum
    major structure of the forebrain; consists of two large hemispheres that wrap around the brain stem; cortex forms the outermost layer
  30. corpus callosum
    (band of white fibers); a neural bridge; serves as communication link between the two hemispheres; allows them to function as a single unit
  31. sulcus/sulci (fissure)
    valley(s) in the cerebral cortex; landmarks; central and lateral sulci (fissure); separate the brain into four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
  32. frontal lobe
    plays role in planning and goal setting behavior, concentration, moral decision making, abstract thinking, language (left hemisphere)
  33. motor cortex
    controls the 600 or more muscles involved in voluntary body movements; contains broca's area
  34. broca's area
    an area in the frontal lobe; the productions of speech through its connections witht he motor cortex region (left hemisphere)
  35. parietal lobe
    feeling temperature - heat or cold; touch and pressure; body sense; contains somatosensory cortex
  36. somatosensory cortex
    receives sensory input that gives rise to our sensations of heat, touch and cold to our senses of balance and body movement
  37. temporal lobe
    plays a role in hearing, facial recognition, and speech comprehension; contains wernicke's area
  38. wernicke's area
    an area in the temporal lobe primarily involved in speech comprehension (understanding); "Broca speaks so Wernicke can understand"
  39. occipital lobe
    plays a role in vision or sight; each eye feeds info to the occipital lobe in each hemisphere by way of the optic nerves
  40. Brain structure and function
    principle of opposite control; each hemisphere governs movement on the opposite side of the body; left hemisphere = right side of body, right hemisphere = left side of body
  41. (hemispheric) laterization
    the relatively greater localization of a function in one hemisphere or the other
  42. left hemisphere
    language (frontal lobe); verbal abilities, speech, mathematical and logical abilities
  43. right hemisphere
    spatial relations, faces, mental imagery, musical and artistic abilities
  44. the split brain
    research on people with severed corpus callosa due to epilepsy; found it did have impact on behavior
  45. Right Visual Field (RVF) and Left Visual Field (LVF)
    input on right side of EACH eye is sent to right hemisphere and input on left side of EACH eye is sent to left hemisphere

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