Psy Ch 3 Set C: The Brain and Endocrine System

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Psy Ch 3 Set C: The Brain and Endocrine System
2014-02-25 22:24:37

Exam 2
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  1. Techniques for studying the brain
    EEG (Electroencephalograph); PET (Positron Emission Tomography); MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging); fMRI (Functional MRI)
  2. EEG (Electroencephalograph)
    multiple electrodes placed on scalp; shows general electrical activity of the brain; represented as a line on a graph or screen
  3. PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Technique
    Positrons and photons emitted by radioactive substances; indicate specific changes in neuronal activity; brain structure
  4. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Technique
    Exposes the brain to a magnetic field; shows high resolution image of brain; does not indicate functions as the
  5. Functional MRI (fMRI)
    combines the advantages of the PET and MRI; detects changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygen; shows areas of the brain that appear activated during a task (brain function)
  6. major neurortransmitters
    a chemical messenger in nervous system; housed in synaptic vesicles; they transmit a message; at least 100 identified neurotransmitters
  7. Acetylcholine (ACh)
    one of the first (neurotransmitter) to be identified; stimulates skeletal muscles (contract); role in memory, arousal and attention; underproduction can lead to Alzheimer's, overproduction causes convulsions
  8. Norepinephrine
    Involved in learning, memory, wakefulness and eating; also arousal and mood; underproduction leads to depression, overproduction leads to stress and panic
  9. Serotonin
    affects sleep, arousal, appetite and mood; underproduction leads to depression, sleeping and eating problems (low levels often found in suicide victims), over productions leads to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
  10. Dopamine
    involved in emotional arousal (sensations of pleasure) and movement; underproduction leads to Parkinson's disease and depression, overproduction leads to Schizophrenia
  11. Endocrine System
    hormone - secreting glands distributed throughout the body; "ductless" gland
  12. hormones
    chemical messages secreted directly into the bloodstream; slower, more widespread messages
  13. glands
    pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, and gonads
  14. pituitary gland
    pea-shaped organ located in brain, regulates growth; regulates water and salt metabolism; causes the uterus to contract during childbirth; causes milk production for nursing; "Master" gland
  15. pineal gland
    located in brain directly above brainstem; secreates melatonin; regulates the sleep-wake cycle
  16. thyroid gland
    located in the neck; secretes thyroxin; controls the metabolic rate: alert and energetic; fat or thin; embedded in thyroid glands are parathyroids
  17. parathyroids
    embedded in thyroid gland; regulate calcium and phosphate levels in body; influences excitability
  18. pancreas
    curve between the stomach and small intestines; regulates blood sugar levels with two hormones; insulin, glucagon; underproduction of insulin leads to diabetes mellitus
  19. adrenal glands
    twin structures or glands located just above kidneys; adrenal cortex - outer layer, adrenal medulla - the inner core; produce and secrete about 50 different hormones; best known is adrenaline (epinephrine); norepinephrine (also a neurotransmitter) involved in body's response to stress arousal when physically threatened; "fight or flight"
  20. gonads
    sex glands; testes in males, ovaries in females; secrete two hormones: androgen - masculine, estrogen - feminine; primary and secondary sex characteristics (females - larger breasts/hips, males - pubic/facial hair, adams apple, muscles)
  21. testosterone
    needs to be present during prenatal development (3-4 months); fetus to develop as male; link to aggressive behavior