Psy Ch 9 Set A: Consciousness and Sleep/Dreams

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Psy Ch 9 Set A: Consciousness and Sleep/Dreams
2014-02-25 22:51:12

Exam 2
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  1. consciousness
    moment to moment awareness of self and environment; awareness of one's own mental activity; thoughts, feelings, perceptions, etc.
  2. Adult humans may not be only creatures to experience consciousness...
    research on self-awareness with infants (age two) and some animals; sense of self and mark test (put mark on nose and look in mirror); review (studied aspects of consciousness); some believe there are levels of consciousness
  3. Freud believed...
    there are 3 levels of consciousness: conscious, preconscious, and unconscious (subconscious)
  4. conscious
    things aware
  5. preconscious
    storehouse of memory
  6. unconscious (subconscious)
    things unaware
  7. conscious states
    most time spent in waking state of consciousness; is the baseline state
  8. altered states of consciousness
    distinct (noticeable) changes in mental processing; sleep, hypnosis, meditation, drug-induced states
  9. circadian rhythms
    the cycles of behavioral and physiological changes our bodies go through; changes in body temperature, certain hormonal secretions and other bodily functions; repeat about every 24 hours; cured by cycles of light and darkness; controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN); located in the hypothalamus; linked to the pineal gland which secretes melatonin, a hormone that has a relaxing effect on the body
  10. Individual variations in circadian rhythms
    owls - stay up later at night; larks - wake up earlier
  11. disruptions to circadian rhythms
    jet lag, Monday morning blahs, rotating work shifts/long shifts/long work weeks
  12. jet lag
    caused by travel across several time zones; worse when traveling eastward (lose hours)
  13. Monday morning blahs
    from sleeping in on weekends, disrupting regular rhythms
  14. sleep and dreaming
    one natural circadian rhythm is sleep-wake cycle; early belief - sleep was a time of mental inactivity; is actually an active, complex state
  15. EEG used in sleep...
    to monitor brain wave activity during sleep and shows stages of sleep
  16. Stages of Sleep
    non-REM sleep (4 stages), REM sleep (just remember stage 1 REM); sleep pattern repeats every 90 minutes, 4-6 cycles a night
  17. Stage 1: (nREM)
    light sleep, you can be easily awakened, lasts about 1-7 minutes; brain wave pattern becomes more irregular
  18. Stage 2: (nREM)
    deeper level of sleep; characterized by sleep spindles; brief bursts of brain wave activity; lasting 1-2 seconds
  19. Stage 3/4: (nREM)
    regular appearance of slow and large delta waves; called slow wave sleep (stage 3)
  20. Stage 4: (nREM)
    deepest level of sleep; delta waves dominate; difficult to wake from this stage; when woken they're groggy and confused
  21. Stage 1 REM
    Characterized by rapid eye movements (REM); high arousal; frequent dreaming; brainwave activity comparable to daytime levels
  22. paradoxical sleep
    the body is highly aroused, yet there is very little movement
  23. REM sleep paralysis
    an inability to move muscles during REM sleep
  24. REM-Rebound Effect
    increase the amount of REM sleep after being deprived of sleep (REM sleep)
  25. During the course of the night, sleep...
    stages 3 and 4 decrease in length; REM periods increase in length; nREM sleep has restorative functions; helps restore body and brain for future activities; helps consolidate memories of newly learned facts
  26. sleep deprivation
    can lead to fatigue, irritability and inattention; can be dangerous to self and others: errors/mistakes, more injuries, impaired learning, lowers effectiveness of immune system, automobile accidents
  27. sleep per age
    people sleep less as they get older (babies - 16 hours, Age 70 - 6 hours); sharp reduction in the percentage of REM sleep (infancy - 8 hours, Age 70 - 1 hour)
  28. Dreams and Dreaming
    brain activity experienced story-like sensations and perceptions; happens all stages of sleep; most bizarre, vivid dreams in REM sleep; daytime activities may influence dream content
  29. lucid dreaming
    intentionally directing dream content (aware of dreaming); may last a few seconds or for many minutes
  30. Sigmund Freud's Psychodynamic Theory
    dreams are a disguised form of wish fulfillment; content of dreams: manifest content and latent content
  31. manifest content (Freud)
    what you see in the dream (dream about riding a horse)
  32. latent content (Freud)
    the hidden meaning of what you see (horseback riding might signify sexual desire)