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- ∆ uses π's name/image for a commercial purpose
- Exception: Newsworthiness
- Note: π doesn't have to be a celebrity/public figure to have name/image appropriated
- Appropriation is the only privacy tort recognized by NY
Invasion of π's seclusion, in a way objectionable to an average
- π's location: Reasonable expectation of privacy?
- Note: Trespass to land is not required (e.g., intrusion can occur through wire-tapping off-site)
as a cause of action in NY
Privacy Torts : False Light
- ∆ makes a wide-spread dissemination of a major falsehood about π
- Strict-Liability Standard: Honest mistakes are actionable, if π can prove that the statement is objectionable to an average person and that it is false—tortious intent is not required
- Remedies: Emotional damages
- Not recognized as a tort in NY
that to qualify as a "major falsehood," the statement need not be defamatory. The standard is whether it is false, and that it is objectionable to the average
person—this requires some understanding of context in which the statement was made
also that unlike the tort of defamation—where the ∆ need only tell at least one person other than the π—in a "false light" case, the ∆ must have made a wide-spread
dissemination of the statement.
- Wide-spread dissemination of confidential information about π, that would be objectionable to the average person
- Exception: Newsworthiness, i.e., legitimate public interest (broadly construed)
- Not recognized as a cause of action in NY
The information must truly be confidential—i.e., π must have taken reasonable steps to ensure its secrecy.
Privacy Torts : Affirmative Defenses
- Consent: Bars π's recovery for all 4 privacy torts
- Absolute/qualified privileges: Bars recovery for false light and disclosure
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