Understanding Internet Protocol
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ones that are exposed to the Internet; any other computers on the Internet can potentially communicate
Public IP addresses
The IPv4 classification system
classful network architecture
are hidden from the Internet and any other networks.
They are usually behind an IP proxy or firewall device.
Private IP addresses
Another type of private range was developed by Microsoft for use on small peer-to-peer Windows networks.
APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing.)
first IP address of the device that a client computer will look for when attempting to gain access outside the local network.
configure two more fields.
- default gateway.
- DNS server address.
is the IP address of the device or server that resolves DNS addresses to IP addresses
DNS server address.
a subset of NAT, which translates both IP addresses and port numbers.
port address translation (PAT)
If the binary digit is a 1,
If the binary digit is a 0
act of dividing a network into smaller logical subnetworks. It is accomplished by transforming the default subnet mask into something else by borrowing bits
way of allocating IP addresses and routing
Internet Protocol packets. It was intended to replace the prior classful IP addressing architecture in an attempt to slow the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses.
Classless inter-domain routing (CIDR)
allows a network to be divided into different-sized subnets to make one IP network that would have previously been considered a class (such as Class A) look like Class B or Class C.
variable-length subnet masking (VLSM)
This is a single address on a single interface. There are two types of
These are addresses assigned to a group of interfaces, most likely on separate hosts.
These addresses are also assigned to a group of interfaces and are also most likely on separate hosts, but packets sent to such an address are delivered to all of the interfaces in the group.
IPv6 addresses are broken down into three parts:
- Global routing prefix
- IPv6 subnet
- Interface ID
This is the individual host IP portion. It can be assigned to one interface or more than one interface, depending on the type of IPv6 address.
This defines the individual subnet of the network that the address is located on.
This is the first three groups of numbers, and it defines the “network”of the address.
Global routing prefix
An IPv6 packet is broken down into three parts:
- Optional extension header
also known as a fixed header. This is 40 bytes and contains the source
and destination addresses plus other forwarding information.
This incorporates options for special treatment of the packet, such as routing and security.
Optional extension header
By default, this is 64 KB maximum, just like IPV4 packets. But again, this can be increased much further if jumbograms are used.
exists when there are two Internet Protocol software implementations in an operating system, one for IPv4 and another for IPv6.
dual IP stack
have the first 80 bits set to 0 (note the double colon), the next 16 set to 1 (shown as ffff ), and the last 32 bits populated by the IPv4 address.
IPv6 packets can be encapsulated inside IPv4 datagrams
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