implemented by dynamically configuring routing tables.
A dynamic protocol that uses distance-vector
routing algorithms to decipher which route to send data packets.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP):
A link-state protocol that monitors the network for routers that have a change in their link state, meaning they were turned off, turned on, or restarted.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
A proprietary protocol used in large networks
to overcome the limitations of RIP
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
A core routing protocol that bases routing decisions on the network path and rules.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
services include X.25 and Frame Relay
communications protocol was one of the first
implementations of packet switching
the packet’s header and trailer information combined.
information includes items such as the packet flag, HDLC (high-level data link control), the from address, information with error detection, and so on
includes items such as the cyclic redundancy check (CRC), which checks the size of the packet for accuracy at the destination computer
entire circuit set
the advancement of X.25 packet switching. It is a newer form of packet switching designed for faster connections
connections to the cloud
permanent virtual circuits (PVCs),
you must purchase Frame Relay service from an Internet services or telecommunications provider.
assigned to each PVC that services the organization’s account.
committed information rate (CIR)
128 Kbps beyond CIR
64 Kbps beyond Br
Usually 126 or 127 (01111110 or 01111111 in binary). Marks the beginning and end of the Frame.
1024 LCNs (Logical Channel Numbers) maximum. Marks the PVC addressing scheme
DLCI (Data Link Control ID)
For congested CIRs and order of priority.
FECN (Forward Explicit Congestion Notification)
For congested CIRs and order of priority
BECN (Backward Explicit Congestion Notification)
Usually not in Frame Relay.
CR (Command Response Rate)
If this is 0, it extends the DLCI address to the address extension in the optional fourth byte.
EA (Extension bit)
Denotes whether a frame is eligible or whether the CIRs are congested.
DE (Discard Eligibility bit)
If this is 1, it ends the DLCI.
This offers 2 bytes of error checking, similar to the CRC.
FCS (Frame Check Sequence)
telecommunications carrier system is a cabling and interface system designed to carry data at high speeds.
An actual trunk carrier circuit that is brought into a company. Can run as a dedicated high-speed link or have other shared technologies running on top of it, like Frame
Relay and ISDN.
Stands for trunk Carrier 3. This is the equivalent of 28 T1s. It is considered 44.736
Mbps, using 672 64 Kbps B channels.
a digital technology developed to combat the limitations of PSTN.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
This is 128 Kbps with two equal B channels at 64 Kbps each for data, and one 16 Kbps D channel for timing. Generally, devices that connect to BRI lines can handle eight simultaneous connections to the Internet.
Basic rate ISDN (BRI)
This is 1.536 Mbps, and it runs on a T-1 circuit. PRI has 23 equal 64 Kbps B channels for data, along with one 64 Kbps D channel for timing.
Primary rate ISDN (PRI)
is a cell-based switching technology as opposed to a packet switching technology.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
transfers multiple digital bit streams over optical fibers
is a standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100 Mbps. It uses the ring topology
Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI)
is a family of technologies that provides data transmissions over local telephone networks.
Digital subscriber line (DSL)
the standard for the various digital subscriber lines.
can run on your home telephone line so
that you can talk on the phone and access the Internet at the same time.
is installed as a separate line and is more expensive.
is used for cable Internet and cable TV.
is what we use now for “regular” phone lines, and it has been around since the 1940s.
A cabling and interface system designed to carry data at high speeds. The most common of these is the T1.