Understanding Wide Area Networks

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Understanding Wide Area Networks
2014-02-26 04:33:14
Lesson 7
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  1. refers to the manual configuration of a router.
    Static routing
  2. implemented by dynamically configuring routing tables.
    Dynamic routing
  3. A dynamic protocol that uses distance-vector
    routing algorithms to decipher which route to send data packets.
    Routing Information Protocol (RIP):
  4. A link-state protocol that monitors the network for routers that have a change in their link state, meaning they were turned off, turned on, or restarted.
    Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
  5. A proprietary protocol used in large networks
    to overcome the limitations of RIP
    Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
  6. A core routing protocol that bases routing decisions on the network path and rules.
    Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
  7. services include X.25 and Frame Relay
    Packet switching
  8. communications protocol was one of the first
    implementations of packet switching
  9. the packet’s header and trailer information combined.
  10. information includes items such as the packet flag, HDLC (high-level data link control), the from address, information with error detection, and so on
  11. includes items such as the cyclic redundancy check (CRC), which checks the size of the packet for accuracy at the destination computer
  12. entire circuit set
    virtual circuit
  13. stops
  14. the advancement of X.25 packet switching. It is a newer form of packet switching designed for faster connections
    Frame Relay
  15. connections to the cloud
    permanent virtual circuits (PVCs),
  16. you must purchase Frame Relay service from an Internet services or telecommunications provider.
    leased lines
  17. assigned to each PVC that services the organization’s account.
    committed information rate (CIR)
  18. CIR
    128 Kbps
  19. Br
    128 Kbps beyond CIR
  20. Be
    64 Kbps beyond Br
  21. Usually 126 or 127 (01111110 or 01111111 in binary). Marks the beginning and end of the Frame.
  22. 1024 LCNs (Logical Channel Numbers) maximum. Marks the PVC addressing scheme
    DLCI (Data Link Control ID)
  23. For congested CIRs and order of priority.
    FECN (Forward Explicit Congestion Notification)
  24. For congested CIRs and order of priority
    BECN (Backward Explicit Congestion Notification)
  25. Usually not in Frame Relay.
    CR (Command Response Rate)
  26. If this is 0, it extends the DLCI address to the address extension in the optional fourth byte.
    EA (Extension bit)
  27. Denotes whether a frame is eligible or whether the CIRs are congested.
    DE (Discard Eligibility bit)
  28. If this is 1, it ends the DLCI.
    Second EA
  29. This offers 2 bytes of error checking, similar to the CRC.
    FCS (Frame Check Sequence)
  30. telecommunications carrier system is a cabling and interface system designed to carry data at high speeds.
  31. An actual trunk carrier circuit that is brought into a company. Can run as a dedicated high-speed link or have other shared technologies running on top of it, like Frame
    Relay and ISDN.
  32. Stands for trunk Carrier 3. This is the equivalent of 28 T1s. It is considered 44.736
    Mbps, using 672 64 Kbps B channels.
  33. a digital technology developed to combat the limitations of PSTN.
    Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
  34. This is 128 Kbps with two equal B channels at 64 Kbps each for data, and one 16 Kbps D channel for timing. Generally, devices that connect to BRI lines can handle eight simultaneous connections to the Internet.
    Basic rate ISDN (BRI)
  35. This is 1.536 Mbps, and it runs on a T-1 circuit. PRI has 23 equal 64 Kbps B channels for data, along with one 64 Kbps D channel for timing.
    Primary rate ISDN (PRI)
  36. is a cell-based switching technology as opposed to a packet switching technology.
    Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
  37. transfers multiple digital bit streams over optical fibers
  38. is a standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100 Mbps. It uses the ring topology
    Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI)
  39. is a family of technologies that provides data transmissions over local telephone networks.
    Digital subscriber line (DSL)
  40. the standard for the various digital subscriber lines.
  41. can run on your home telephone line so
    that you can talk on the phone and access the Internet at the same time.
  42. is installed as a separate line and is more expensive.
  43. is used for cable Internet and cable TV.
    Broadband cable
  44. is what we use now for “regular” phone lines, and it has been around since the 1940s.
  45. A cabling and interface system designed to carry data at high speeds. The most common of these is the T1.