The world should be viewed through the heart not the mind.
Two revolutions in progress American revolution—during the 1770’s, American colonies revolted against British rule.
French revolution—a long-standing government could be successfully challenged on its own soil.
July 14, 1789—French citizens stormed the Bastille, a Paris prison for political prisoners.
Revolutionaries placed limits on powers of King Louis XVI—established a constitutional monarch.
Charles James Fox, leader of the Whig party, supported the revolution.
Wordsworth spoke out in support of the revolution.
Edmund Burke, who had sympathized with Am. Rev., condemned the events in France.
Reign of Terror
France declared war on Austria.
A radical group (the Jacobins) gained control of the French legislative assembly, abolished the monarchy, declared the nation a republic.
Jacobians, French, Monarchy
The revolutionaries tried and convicted Louis XVI with treason.
He went to the guillotine.
These events were so shocking that even those who had sympathized with the French Rev. now turned against it.
France’s new “citizen” army set out to liberate other European nations from despotic rule.
British leaders didn’t want France to win dominance on European continent.
France declared war on Britain. This dragged on 22 years and squelched hope of reform within British society.
Tory govt., led by William Pitt, outlawed talk of Parliamentary reform, banned public meetings, and suspended certain public rights.
Tory William Pitt Parliamentary
Napoleonic Wars Although Napoleon planned invasion of Britain, he abandoned the plan.
By 1807, Napoleon controlled most of Europe. Britain ruled the ocean, but Napoleon ruled Europe.
He invaded Russia and was defeated in the Peninsular War.
He escaped to France, was exiled, ruled for Hundred Days, and the was defeated at Waterloo.
France, Hundred Days Waterloo.
During the war with France, Britain ignored problems of the industrial revolution including overcrowding factory towns, the unpleasant and unsafe working conditions, long working hours, and low pay.
British govt. sided with employers against workers Workers protested loss of jobs. (Luddite Riots) Society was splitting into working classes and ruling classes.
Luddite working ruling
Weak kings enhanced power of Prime Ministers. George III went mad in 1811 George IV died, William IV, his brother, was old and weak.
Prime Ministers George III George IV William IV
Reforms The Reform Law of 1832 extended voting rights to middle class (males only) First law governing factory safety Abolished slavery.
Reform Law factory Abolished
Jean Jacques Rousseau A leading philosopher of 18th century France Saw society as a force of evil that infringed on liberty and happiness. Inspired such novels as Tarzan Blake’s poetry focuses on similar themes (i.e., corruption of society, children’s innocence, etc.)
Rousseau philosopher liberty Inspired poetry
Became a source of thought for Romantic poets Romantic Novelists and novels Gothic novel brave heroes and heroines vast eerie castles ghosts and supernatural—example, Frankenstein (Mary Shelley)
Novel of Manners satirical eye on British customs Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice Historical Romances imaginative works of fiction built around a real person or historical event Sir Walter Scott –Ivanhoe (about knights and chivalry)