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the device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning,
the repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words (as in "she sells sea shells").
a direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art.
the multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence or passage.
a similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them.
- one of the devices of a repetition, in which the same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences.
- "It was the best of times; it was the worst of times"
a short narrative detailing particulars of an interesting episode or event.
the word, phrase, or clause referred to by pronouns.
a terse statements of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle.
- a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. It is an address to someone or something that cannot answer.
- William Wordsworth addresses John Milton as he writes, "Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour."
the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the author's choice of object that are described.
a grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb.
- the major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama.
- Prose can be divided into fiction (novels and short stories) or nonfiction (essays, biographies, autobiographies, ect.).
- Poetry can be divided into lyrics, dramatic, narratives, epic, etc.
- Drama can be divided into tragedy, comedy, melodrama, farce, ect.
this tern literally means "sermon", but more informally it can include and serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatements. Often have a comic effect; however, a serious effect is also possible.
- The sensory detail or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstraction.
- A rose may present visual imagery while also representing the color in a woman's cheek and/or symbolizing some degree in perfection.
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented.
an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.
- the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant.
- 3 major types of irony
- 1. verbal irony [the words literally state the opposite of the writer's (or speaker's) true meaning]
- 2. situational irony [events turn out the opposite of what is expected]
- 3. dramatic irony [facts or events that are unknown to a character in a play or a piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work.