psychology exam 1 study guide

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  1. Structuralist
    is the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind

    Wilhelm Wundt developed this perspective

    • 1) believed that psychology should study consciousness-(mind)
    • 2) believed that scientific laboratory was the best method to use to study the mind

    3) borrowed from chemistry, in trying to break consciousness down into elemental sensations and feelings

    4) used the method of introspection,which involved the research participants self reporting their own experience upon being presented with a stimulus (such as a color or sound)

    5) the fundamental problem with his perspective is that the observations couldn't be replicated
  2. functionalists
    the study of the what purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment

    William James developed this prespective

    1) he agreed with wundt, that psychology should be studying the consciousness-mind

    2) he believed that it should be studied using the rational method - setting out to understand the functions of mental processes and what they served

    3) he borrowed from biology, he used Darwin's principle of natural selection, and reasoned that mental abilities must have evolved because they were adaptive, and helped people solve problems and increased their chances of survival....

    4) he reasoned that consciousness must serve an important biological function and that the task for psychologist was to understand what those functions are.
  3. Rosenzweig study
    studied rats brain development with rats raised in different environments (different levels of stimulation) 

    rats that had more stimulation had heavier brains, ( cerebral cortex)
  4. Gazzaniga studied
    studied whether the opposite hemisphere was able to respond to the stimulus being presented without the presence of the corpus callosum.
  5. empiricism
    the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation 
  6. Dogmatism
    the tendency to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true, without consideration of evidence or the opinions of others.
  7. Theory
    a hypothetical explanation of a nature phenomenon

    "could be an act of god"
  8. hypothesis
    a falsifiable prediction made by a theory

    a testable theory
  9. validity
    the extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related

  10. Reliability
    the tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing

  11. Power
    the ability of a measure to detect differences 

  12. operational definition
    a description of a property in concrete, measurable terms

    measurements of time, distance, etc. (60 seconds to a min, 12 inches to a foot)
  13. demand characteristics
    these aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should

    stanford prison experiment guards acting as they thought, they were expected to act
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psychology exam 1 study guide
psychology exam 1 study guide
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