Bacteria and Eukaryotes

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Bacteria and Eukaryotes
2014-02-26 16:34:57

bacteria bio 108
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  1. What is Bacillus anthracis?
    • cause anthrax
    • can enter resistant endospore state (dormant form of bacteria, resembles a spore but does serves no reproductive purpose)
  2. What are mycoplasmas?
    smallest known cells, lack cells walls and are therefore resistant to many antibiotics
  3. What is Clostridium botulinum?
    • causes botulism (result of neurotoxin produced by bacteria)
    • immobilizes nervous system
    • used for botox
  4. Metabolic and chemical uses of bacteria
    • sewage treatment
    • bioremediation/waste management
    • antibiotics
  5. What do we use extremophile eubacterium for?
    • allowed us to explore diversity at molecular level
    • use thermus aqauaticus from hot springs, retain activity at high temp using PCR to amplify DNA for sequence analysis
  6. What is the domain of bacteria
  7. What kingdom is bacteria
    protista (group of eukaryotic microorganisms)
  8. Eukarya Protista
    • DNA in linear chromosomes in a membrane bound nucleaus
    • have mitochondria and chloroplasts
    • often larger than prokaryotes
    • diverse morphology
  9. What do eukaryotic cells have that their ancestral prokaryotes did not?
    developed a endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope
  10. What is the Endosymbiont Theory?
    • ancestral host cell formed a symbiotic relationship with green algae (aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote) which eventually became the mitochindira
    • some engulfed photosynthetic prokaryotes (cynobacteria)
  11. What gives us evidence of endosymbiosis?
    • mitochondria and chloroplast are able to:
    • self replicate
    • have own circular DNA
    • 2 cell membrane layers
  12. Steps in diversification of Eukaryotes
    • 1. the metabolic diversification of prokaryotes
    • 2. eukaryotic cells have greater structural diversity
    • 3. lineage of multicellular bodies
    • 4. Eukaryotics began sexual reproduction
  13. What is an autotrophic protist?
    algae (not a plant)
  14. Characteristics of algae
    • make own food
    • aquatic
    • single or multicellular
    • sexual and asexual
    • photosynthesis
  15. Cause and concerns with algae blooms
    • excess nutrients and warm water
    • deplete oxygen (once they decompose) and produce toxins
  16. Describe Protozoans
    • heterotrophic protista
    • unicellular
    • asexual
    • internal digestion
    • capable of movement
  17. What are ciliates?
    • complex bodies with specialized areas
    • feed on bacteria and smaller protists using phagocytosis
    • asexual reproduction
  18. What is phagocytosis?
    the engulfing of a solid particle for internal digestion
  19. How do amoebas move?
  20. What are two types of diseases caused by zooflagellate?
    • giardia lamblia
    • trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickenss): parasite infects the CNS
  21. plasmodial slime molds
    • start out with one nucleus and then undergo mitosis without cell division¬†
    • become a mass of cytoplasm with free flowing nuclei