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What is Bacillus anthracis?
- cause anthrax
- can enter resistant endospore state (dormant form of bacteria, resembles a spore but does serves no reproductive purpose)
What are mycoplasmas?
smallest known cells, lack cells walls and are therefore resistant to many antibiotics
What is Clostridium botulinum?
- causes botulism (result of neurotoxin produced by bacteria)
- immobilizes nervous system
- used for botox
Metabolic and chemical uses of bacteria
- sewage treatment
- bioremediation/waste management
What do we use extremophile eubacterium for?
- allowed us to explore diversity at molecular level
- use thermus aqauaticus from hot springs, retain activity at high temp using PCR to amplify DNA for sequence analysis
What is the domain of bacteria
What kingdom is bacteria
protista (group of eukaryotic microorganisms)
- DNA in linear chromosomes in a membrane bound nucleaus
- have mitochondria and chloroplasts
- often larger than prokaryotes
- diverse morphology
What do eukaryotic cells have that their ancestral prokaryotes did not?
developed a endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope
What is the Endosymbiont Theory?
- ancestral host cell formed a symbiotic relationship with green algae (aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote) which eventually became the mitochindira
- some engulfed photosynthetic prokaryotes (cynobacteria)
What gives us evidence of endosymbiosis?
- mitochondria and chloroplast are able to:
- self replicate
- have own circular DNA
- 2 cell membrane layers
Steps in diversification of Eukaryotes
- 1. the metabolic diversification of prokaryotes
- 2. eukaryotic cells have greater structural diversity
- 3. lineage of multicellular bodies
- 4. Eukaryotics began sexual reproduction
What is an autotrophic protist?
algae (not a plant)
Characteristics of algae
- make own food
- single or multicellular
- sexual and asexual
Cause and concerns with algae blooms
- excess nutrients and warm water
- deplete oxygen (once they decompose) and produce toxins
- heterotrophic protista
- internal digestion
- capable of movement
What are ciliates?
- complex bodies with specialized areas
- feed on bacteria and smaller protists using phagocytosis
- asexual reproduction
What is phagocytosis?
the engulfing of a solid particle for internal digestion
How do amoebas move?
What are two types of diseases caused by zooflagellate?
- giardia lamblia
- trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickenss): parasite infects the CNS
plasmodial slime molds
- start out with one nucleus and then undergo mitosis without cell division
- become a mass of cytoplasm with free flowing nuclei