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Locke thinks that the real objects in the world possess primary or secondary qualities that are perceived through the senses. What is a primary quality? What is a secondary quality (explain briefly)?
- - Primary qualities are characteristics that necessarily inhered in material bodies. (extension, size, shape, location, motion/rest)
- - Secondary qualities were produced in our minds by the primary qualities in external things. (colors, sounds, tastes, odors, tactile sensations)
In Locke's theory do people have direct
knowledge of the "real world?" What is representative realism?
Representative realism is when the mind does not give us direct knowledge to reality; rather it represents reality in a way a photograph does. So people do not have direct knowledge of the "real world."
What does Locke say worldly objects are made of? Can Locke give a clear explanation?
"Something he knows not what"
Berkeley agrees with Locke that all knowledge of the world comes through the senses, but he doesn't like Locke's notion that objects have both primary and secondary qualities. Why not?
And how does Berkeley get rid of this distinction?
Berkeley argued that both secondary and primary qualities are the same thing. All of our ideas are nothing but our ideas of secondary qualities or interpretations of them.
If our minds are blank slates, and ideas come from each of the 5 separate senses, it would seem that our minds would be bombarded by sense data and instead of coherence there would be chaos. What two processes does Berkeley say helps a baby learn to make sense of all this information (explain briefly)?
- 1. The child starts to read data by beginning to notice patterns in the appearance of the data.
- 2. Parents teach the child a language.
Berkeley theorizes that a physical object is
just the totality of its sense data and that sense data are exclusively mental
(or esse est percipi). If that's true,
are there real objects out there
Berkely does not deny the existence of real objects but rather corrects the analysis of objects is carried out in the terms of sense data. But his theory pretty much says that no physical world exists.
It seems true that no two people receive exactly the same sense data and therefore can't have the same understanding of the
world. Yet people do share a common outlook. How is this possible in Berkeley's
Because language builds bridges in solitary islands. Also because our senses provide universal agreement like the feel of pain and water.
One aspect of human experience that Rationalism can't explain is why different groups of people see and understand the world differently. How does Berkeley's theory account for this phenomenon (explain
Different people cut up the world so differently. Because different languages will express conventional ideas differently.
When asked where sense data come from, Locke and Berkeley both think that there are two possibilities. What are these two
possibilities (explain briefly)?
It comes from God or from an infinite casual series.
According to Berkeley, how does God stabilize
the orderliness of our perceptions of ever-changing sense data? Why don't things cease to exist when someone
is not perceiving them?
God is the external perceiver so he is in charge of not making the objects cease because he is the one perceiving them. God is the guarantor of the orderliness of sense of data (the orderliness sense data)
Hume distinguishes between analytical and
synthetic propositions. Analytical propositions are derived purely from reason
(a priori). Why does Hume reject analytical propositions as being of very little use, if any? List the three types of analytical
- Because they are tantologies. They are redundant and repetitious. The predicate only repeats what was already in the subject.
- A=A 2+3 "brothers are males"
What is a synthetic proposition according to Hume
"matters of fact" They must be derived by sense data. (Locke's secondary qualities) (Berkeley's ideas and sensations)