Bio2011 Final

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Bio2011 Final
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Bio2011 Final
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  1. The Respiratory System:
    What are the main functions?
    There are four processes that belong to two categories called...?
    What does it also function in?
    • - supplies blood with O2 for cellular respiration; disposes CO2, a waste product of cellular respiration.
    • - Both respiratory and circulatory systems
    • - Also functions in olfaction and speech.
  2. Processes of Respiration : Respiratory system
    There are two parts...?
    Go into detail.
    • - Pulmonary ventilation (breathing) : movement of air into and out of lungs.
    • - External respiration : O2 and CO2 exchange between lungs and blood.
  3. Processes of Respiration: Circulatory system
    There are two parts...?
    go into detail..
    • - Transport of respiratory gases : O2 transported from the lungs to the tissue cells of the body. CO2 is transported from the tissue cells to the lungs. 
    • - Internal respiration : O2 and CO2 exchange between systematic blood vessels and tissues.
  4. Respiratory System : Functional Anatomy
    What are the major organs! (6-ish)

    *look @ book for more detail*
    • - Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses. 
    • - Pharynx
    • - Larynx 
    • - Trachea
    • - Bronchi and their branches.
    • - Lungs and alveoli
  5. Functional Anatomy 
    What happens in the Respiratory zone?
    Which structures does it have?
    • - site of gas exchange.
    • - microscopic structures - respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.
  6. Functional Anatomy
    What happens in the conducting zone and what does it include?
    What helps promote ventilation?
    • - conduits to gas exchange sites. Includes all other respiratory structures; cleanses, warms, humidifies air. 
    • - Diaphragm and other respiratory muscles.
  7. The Nose
    What are its functions? (5)
    • - provides and airway for respiration 
    • - Moistens and warms entering air
    • - Filters and cleans inspired air
    • - Serves as resonating chamber for speech.
    • - Houses olfactory receptors.
  8. The Nose
    What are the two regions?
    Go into detail.
    • - External and Nasal cavity.
    • - External Cvty. : root, bridge, dorsum nasi and apex.
    • - Nasal Cvty. : within the posterior to external nose, divided by midline nasal septum.
  9. Nasal cavity:
    What's the nasal vestibule and what does it include?
    What is the rest of nasal cavity lined with?
    • - nasal cavity superior to nostrils. Includes Vibrissae (hairs) filter coarse particles from inspired air.
    • - Mucous membranes : Olfactory mucosa; Respiratory mucosa.
  10. Nasal Cavity:
    What does the Olfactory mucosa contain?
    What about the Respiratory mucosa?
    • - Olfactory : olfactory epithelium. 
    • - Respiratory mucosa : cilia which moves contaminated mucus posteriorly to throat. Inspired air warmed by plexuses of capillary and veins. Sensory nerve ending trigger sneezing.
  11. Paranasal Sinuses :
    Where is this located at?
    What are its purpose?
    • - In frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary bones.
    • - Lightens skull, secretes mucus, helps to warm and moisten air. 

  12. Pharynx : 
    What is it? 
    What does it connect?
    What is it composed of?
    What are the three regions?
    • - Muscular tube from base of skull to C6.
    • - Connects nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to larynx and esophagus.
    • - Composed of skeletal muscle.
    • - Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
  13. Pharynx :
    Where is the nasopharynx?
    What happens in here during swallowing?
    • - Air passageway posterior to nasal cavity
    • - Soft palate and uvula close nasopharynx during swallowing.
  14. Pharynx :
    What does the Oropharynx act as?
    • - Passageway for food and air from level of soft palate to epiglottis. 
  15. Pharynx : 
    What does the Laryngopharynx act as?
    • - Passageway for food and air, extends to larynx, where continuous with esophagus. 
  16. Larynx :
    Where does it attach to and where does it open into and what is it continuous with?
    What are its functions?
    • - attaches to hyoid bone; opens into laryngopharynx; continuous with trachea.
    • - Provides patent airway; routes air and food into proper channels; voice production (houses vocal folds.)
  17. Trachea : 
    What is it? Found?
    The wall is composed of three layers. *inwards going outwards* Go into detail.
    - Windpipe - from larynx into mediastinum.

    • Three layers:
    • - Mucosa : ciliated pseudo stratified epithelium with goblet cells.
    • - Submucosa : connective tissue with seomucous glands.
    • - Adventitia : outermost layer made of connective tissue.
  18. Trachea : 
    Say the two things it has. 

    What does the trachealis connect and when does it contract?
    What's the carina and where is it?
    - trachealis and carina

    • - Connects posterior parts of cartilage rings; contracts during coughing to expel mucus.
    • - Spar of cartilage on last, expanded tracheal cartilage; point where trachea branches into two main bronchi.
  19. Bronchial Tree :

    something undergoes (#) orders of branching which also forms something?
    - Air passages undergo 23 orders of branching - this forms the bronchial (respiratory) tree.
  20. Conducting Zone Structures :
    Why is the trachea important here?
    Each ____ enters ____ of one lung. 
    Where do each main bronchus branch into? 
    One lobe is supplied by...?
    • - Trachea : divides to form right and left main (primary) bronchi.
    • - main bronchus; hilum.
    • - Each main bronchus branches into lobar (secondary) bronchi (three on right, two on left.)
    • - Each lobar bronchus supplies one lobe.
  21. Conducting Zone Structures :
    What do lobar bronchus branch into?
    As Branches become smaller and smaller, they go in this order?
    • - segmental (tertiary) bronchi, which divide repeatedly.
    • - Bronchioles (less than 1 mm in diameter) and Terminal bronchioles (smallest; less than .5 diameter.)
  22. Respiratory Zone :
    What does it begin as and what is the pathway?
    What doe alveolar sacs contain and state 2 facts.
    • - begins as terminal bronchioles -> respiratory bronchioles -> alveolar ducts -> alveolar sacs. 
    • - Alveolar sacs contain clusters of alveoli. 300 million alveoli make up most of lung volume and it's the site of gas exchange.
  23. Respiratory Membrane :
    What does it consist of?
    What are the alveolar walls comprised of?
    Something secretes something...?
    • - Alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes. (0.5 thick; gas exchange across membrane by simple diffusion.) 
    • - single layer of squamous epithelium (type I alveolar cells.)
    • - Scattered cuboidal type II alveolar cells secrete surfactant and antimicrobial proteins.
  24. Alveoli :
    What is it surrounded by?
    What do alveolar pores do?
    What do alveolar macrophages do?
    • - surrounded by fine elastic fibers and pulmonary capillaries.
    • - connect adjacent alveoli; equalize air pressure throughout lung.
    • - Keeps alveolar surfaces sterile (2 million dead macrophages/ hour carried by cilia -> throat -> swallowed)
  25. Lungs :
    What does it occupy?
    What is the root?
    What's the costal surface?
    What is it composed of?
    • - all thoracic cavity except mediastinum.
    • - Site of vascular and bronchial attachment to mediastinum.
    • - anterior, lateral and posterior surfaces.
    • - primarily of alveoli.
  26. Lungs : 
    Know where the apex, base and hilum are found.
    • - Apex : superior tip; deep to clavicle.
    • - Base : inferior surface; rests on diaphragm.
    • - Hilum : on mediastinal surface ; site for entry/exit of blood vessels, bronchi, lymphatic vessels and nerves.
  27. Lungs :
    What's the main difference between the left and right lung?
    What does the left lung have? and it's separated by...?
    For the right lung, things are separated by something..?
    • - left lung is smaller than right lung. 
    • - LL: cardiac notch (concavity for heart). Separated into superior and inferior lobes by oblique fissure.
    • - RL : Superior, middle, inferior lobes separated by oblique and horizontal fissures.
  28. Lungs :
    The lungs are separated by this segment? How many each? Separated by?
    What's a plus due to this?
    • - Bronchopulmonary segments. 10 right, 8-10 left.) Separated by connective tissue septa. 
    • - if diseased can be individually removed.
  29. Blood Supply :
    Pulmonary circulation has low __ and high __?
    What do the pulmonary arteries do?
    Pulmonary veins?
    • - pressure ; volume.
    • - deliver systematic venous blood to lungs for oxygenation. (Branch profusely; feeds into pulmonary capillary networks.) 
    • - carries oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to heart.
  30. Blood Supply :
    What do bronchial arteries provide?
    Where does it arise from and enters what?
    what is it apart of what and it has low __ and high __?
    What does it do?
    Something's linked to something?
    • - oxygenated blood to lung tissue.
    • - arise from aorta and enters lungs at hilum.
    • - part of systematic circulation (high pressure and low volume.)
    • - supplies all lung tissue except alveoli.
    • - Bronchial veins anastomose with pulmonary veins.
  31. Pleura :
    What is it? What does it divide?
    Where is the parietal pleura found in?
    What about visceral pleura?
    What does the pleural fluid do?
    • - thin, double-layered serosa; divides thoracic cavity into two pleural compartments and mediastinum.
    • - on thoracic wall, superior face of diaphragm, around heart, between lungs.
    • - on external lung surface.
    • - fills slitlike pleural cavity and provides lubrication and surface tension -> assists in expansion and recoil
  32. Mechanics of breathing :
    Something consists of two phases called...? 
    Go into detail.
    • - Inspiration : gases flow into lungs.
    • - Expiration : gases exit lungs.
  33. Pulmonary ventilation :
    Has what?
    What is it?
    One thing causes something else to change.
    What happens when pressure changes?
    • - Inspiration and expiration.
    • - mechanical process that depend on volume changes in thoracic cavity. 
    • - volume changes, pressure changes.
    • - Pressure changes, gases flow to equalize pressure.
  34. Boyle's Law :
    What is it?

    State some compressible places.
    At constance temperature, the pressure of a gas caries inversely with its volume.

    - Middle ear space, sinuses, lungs, bowel lumen.
  35. Inspiration :
    What type of process it is?
    What contracts?
    What happens to the thoracic and that causes what?
    What happens to the lungs?
    What happens to air?
    • - active process.
    • - inspiratory muscles (diaphragm and external intercostals) contract.
    • - thoracic volume increases -> intrapulmonary pressure drops.
    • - lungs stretched and intrapulmonary volume increases. 
    • - air flow into lungs, down its pressure gradient, until Ppul = Patm
  36. Expiration :
    Type of process?
    What relaxes?
    What happens to the thoracic cavity?
    Lungs?
    Air flow?

    What about forced expiration?
    • - normally passive process.
    • - inspiratory muscles.
    • - Thoracic cavity volume decreases. 
    • - elastic lungs recoil and intrapulmonary volume decreases -> pressure increases. 
    • - Air flows out of the lungs down its pressure gradient until Ppul = 0.

    - active process which uses abdominal (oblique and transverse) and internal intercostal muscles.
  37. Gas Exchange Between Blood, Lungs and tissues :
    What's the difference between External respiration and Internal respiration?
    What do they have in common?
    • - External Respiration : diffusion of gases in lungs.
    • - Internal Respiration : diffusion of gases at body tissues.
    • - Both involve physical properties of gases and composition of alveolar gas.
  38. Basic Properties of Gases : Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures :
    What it it? 
    Something related to this is directly proportional to what?
    • - total pressure exerted by mixture of gases = sum of pressures extorted by each gas. 
    • - Pressure exerted by each gas in mixture; directly proportional to its percentage mixture.
  39. Basic Properties of Gases : Henry's Law :
    What is it?
    Something is proportion to something?
    What happens at equilibrium?
    Amount of gas dissolve depends on what?
    • - Gas mixture in contact with liquid. 
    • - Each gas dissolved is proportion to its partial pressure. 
    • - At equilibrium, partial pressures in two phases will be equal. 
    • - Amount of each gas that will dissolve depends on solubility (CO2 is 20 times more soluble in water than O2; little N2 dissolves in water. ) and temperature (as liquid temperature rises, solubility decreases)
  40. Composition of Alveolar Gas :
    What does alveoli contain more of?
    Three things are related to this.?
    • - more CO2 and water vapor than atmospheric air.
    • - Gas exchanges in lungs; humidification of air; mixing of alveolar gas with each breath.
  41. External Respiration :
    What is it?
    What is it influenced by? (3)
    • - Exchange of O2 and CO2 across respiratory membrane. 
    • - thickness and surface area of respiratory membrane; partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities; ventilation-perfusion coupling.
  42. [External Respiration] Thickness and Surface Area of Respiratory Membrane :
    What's the size of respiratory membranes and it has a large what? 
    When does it thicken?
    Where is the surface area reduced?
    • - 0.5 - 1 mue m thick; large total surface area (40 times that of skin) for gas exchange.
    • - thickens if lungs become waterlogged and edematous -> gas exchange inadequate.
    • - Reduced surface area in emphysema (walls of adjacent alveoli break down), tumors, inflammation, mucus.
  43. [External Respiration] Partial Pressure Gradients and Gas Solubilities :
    • - steep partial pressure gradient for O2 in lungs. 
    • - Venous blood Po2 = 40 mm Hg
    • - Alveolar Po2 = 104 mm Hg.
    • - Drives oxygen flow to blood 
    • - Equilibrium reached across respiratory membrane in ~0.25 seconds, about 1/3 time a red blood cell in pulmonary capillary -> (Adequate oxygenation even if blood flow increases 3X)
  44. [External Respiration] Partial Pressure Gradients and Gas Solubilities :
    • - Partial pressure gradient for CO2 in lungs less steep. 
    • - venous Blood Pco2 = 45 mm Hg
    • - Alveolar Pco2 = 40 mm Hg
    • - Though gradient not as steep, CO2 diffuses in equal amounts with oxygen. 
    • - CO2 20 times more soluble in plasma than oxygen.
  45. [External Respiration] Ventilation - Perfusion Coupling :
    What's Ventilation?
    What's perfusion?
    Why should they be matched?
    Why are they never balanced?
    • - Amount of gas reaching alveoli.
    • - blood flow reaching alveoli.
    • - matched (coupled) for efficient gas exchange.
    • - due to regional variation due to effect of gravity on blood and air flow. Some alveolar ducts plugged with mucus.
  46. Internal Respiration :
    What is it?
    How is it different compared to external respiration? (3)
    • - capillary gas exchange in body tissues.
    • - Partial pressures and difusion gradients reversed compared to external respiration.
    • - Tissue Po2 always lower than in systematic arterial blood -> oxygen from blood to tissues.
    • - CO2 -> from tissues to blood.
    • - Venous blood Po2 40 mm Hg and Pco2 45 mm Hg.
  47. Transport of Respiratory Gases by Blood : 
    Has two transports.
    Oxygen (O2) transport and Carbon dioxide (CO2) transport.
  48. O2 transport :

    What is it?
    How much is dissolved in plasma?
    How much is loosely bound to___?
    Fully saturated vs partially saturated?
    • - Molecular O2 carried in blood.
    • - 1.5% dissolved in plasma.
    • - 98.5% loosely bound to each Fe of hemoglobin
    • - Fully saturated : all 4 heme groups carry O2.
    • - Partially saturated : 1-3 hemes  carry O2.
  49. CO2 Transport :
    It is transported in blood in 3 forms: 
    Detail.
    • - 7 to 10% dissolve in plasma.
    • - 20% bound to globin of hemoglobin.
    • - 70% transported as bicarbonate ions.
  50. Neural Signaling :
    What are neurons?
    How are neuron signals transmitted?
    • - nerve cells that transfer information within the body
    • - through neurons (and bundles of neurons - nerves)
  51. Neuron Signaling :
    What are the two types of signals that neurons use to communicate?
    • - Electrical signals : (long - distance)
    • - Chemical signals : (short - distance)
  52. Divisions of the Nervous system :
    What are the two divisions?
    For the first one, where is it found in? What does it do?
    For the second one, where is it found? What does it do?
    • - Central Nervous System (CNS) 
    • - Brain and spinal cord. 
    • - Integration and control center : interprets sensory input and dictates motor output.

    • - Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    • - portions of nervous system outside CNS.
    • - Consists mainly of nerves that extend from brain and spinal cord.
  53. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) :
    It has two functional divisions with certain "nicknames" 
    What do these divisions do?
    • - Sensory (afferent) divison :
    •  Conveys impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, joints, and visceral organs to CNS.

    • - Motor (efferent) division :
    • Transmits impulses from CNS to effector organs (muscles and glands.)
  54. What's a synapse?
    What's the synaptic terminal?
    • - a junction between an axon and another cell.
    • - synaptic terminal of one axon passes information across the synapse in the form of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. 
  55. Structural Classifications of Neurons :
    How are they grouped by?
    What are the three types and how many axons; dendrites and where it's found at?
    • - number of processes.
    • - Multipolar : 1 axon, other dendrites, most common in CNS.
    • - Bipolar : 1 axon, 1 dendrite; rare - retina and olfactory mucosa.
    • - Unipolar : 1 short process, T-like divide, both considered axons.
  56. Functional Classification of Neurons :
    What are the three classification?
    1st one : What does it do? Almost all are what? Where are their cell bodies located at?
    2nd one : What does it do? Mostly what? cell bodies located where?
    3rd one : Found where and does what? Where is it confined in?
    - Sensory (afferent), Motor (efferent) and Interneurons.

    • - Transmits impulses from sensory receptors toward CNS. Almost all are Unipolar. Cell bodies found in sensory ganglia outside CNS.
    • -carry impulses from CNS to effectors. Multipolar. Most cell bodies in CNS (except some autonomic neurons.)
    • - Lies between motor and sensory neurons in neural pathways and shuttle signals through CNS pathway where integration occurs. Mostly confined in CNS.
  57. Membrane Potentions : 

    Neurons are highly...?
    What do they respond to and what do they do afterwards?
    How does the impulse and stimulus relate?
    • - excitable.
    • - responds to adequate stimulus by generating an action potential (nerve impulse.)
    • - Impulse is always the same regardless of stimulus.
  58. Define Voltage; how it is measured? What is it called? A greater what equals to what? 

    Define Current. What can it be used as?

    Define Resistance and the two things that relate to it.
    - measure of potential energy generated by separated charge. Measured by Volts (V) or Millivolts (mV). Called potential difference or potential. A greater charge difference between points = higher voltage. 

    - flow of electrical charge (ions) between two points. Can be used to do work.

    • - hindrance to charge flow.
    • Insulator (substance with high electrical resistance.) 
    • Conductor (substance with low electrical resistance.)
  59. Neural Signals : 
    Every cell has a what? and it moves across by what?
    How are messages transmitted?
    What's the resting potential?
    • - has a voltage (difference in electrical charge) across its plasma membrane called membrane potential.
    • - Messages are transmitted as changed in membrane potential.
    • - the membrane potential of a neuron not sending signals.
  60. Ions :
    Neurons have 3 types of ion channels...? 

    How do ions pass? Certain elements pass through differently...?
    - Passive (leakage.. always open); Voltage-activated; chemically activated (ligand gated.) 

    - ions pass through specific passive ion channels in the membrane. K+ leaks out faster than Na+ leaks in.
  61. Gated Channels :
    What happens when gated channels are open?
    (From where to where?)
    What does ion flow create?
    • - Ions diffuse quickly across membrane along electrochemical gradients. 
    • (concentration gradients from higher conctrtn. to lower conctrtn.) 
    • (electrical gradients toward opposite electrical charge.)
    • - created an electrical current and voltage changes across membrane.
  62. The resting Membrane Potential :
    What is the potential difference across membrane of resting cell?
    What is it generated by?
    • - approximately - 70 mV in neurons (cytoplasmic side of membrane is negatively charged relative to outside) 
    • - Generated by difference in ionic makeup of ICF and ECF. Also, different permeability of the plasma membrane.
  63. Membrane potential :
    Membrane go through Depolarization vs Hyperpolarization? What do these two cause?
    • - Membrane is depolarized when a stimulus causes membrane potential to become less negative. Increases the probability of producing nerve impulses.
    • - Membrane is hyper polarized when membrane potential becomes more negative than resting potential. reduces the probability of producing nerve impulses.
  64. Membrane Potential Changes used as communication signals :
    When do membrane potential change?
    These changes produce two types of signals called?
    Why are these changes important?
    • - When concentrations of ions across membrane change and membrane permeability to ions changes.
    • - Graded potentials (incoming signals operating over short distances) and Action potentials (long-distance signals of axons.) 
    • -changes in membrane potential are used as signals to receive, integrate and send information.
  65. Membrane Potential Changes used as communication signals;
    Graded Potentials :
    What are they?
    What varies? 
    A stronger what causes what?
    Can either be what?
    Triggered by what to open what?
    Travels how far?
    • - Short-lived, localized changes in membrane potential.
    • -Magnitude varies with stimulus strength.
    • - stronger stimulus -> more voltage change; farther current flows. 
    • - depolarization or hyper polarization. 
    • - triggered by stimulus that opens gated ion channels.
    • - current flows but dissipated quickly and decays. Signals only over short distances.
  66. Membrane Potential Changes used as communication signals; Action Potential :
    What type of channel responds to the change in membrane potential? 
    What happens when a stimulus depolarizes the membrane?
    Movement of Na+ does what?
    Strong stimulus does what?
    • - voltage gated Na+ and K+ channels respond to a change in membrane potential. 
    • - When a stimulus depolarizes the membrane, Na+ channels open, allowing Na+ to diffuse into the cell.
    • - The movement of Na+ into the cell increases the depolarization and causes even more Na+ channels to open. 
    • - strong stimulus results in a massive change in membrane voltage called an action potential.
  67. Action Potential :
    When does it occur?
    What is it?
    • - occurs if a stimulus causes the membrane voltage to cross a particular threshold. 
    • - a brief all-or-none depolarization of a neuron's plasma membrane. 
    • - Action potential signals that carry information along axons.
  68. Action potential :
    What's refractory period?
    What happens when what?
    • - a result of a temporary inactivation of the Na+ channels.
    • - during the refractory period after an action potential, a secant action potential cannot be initiated.
  69. Propagation of an Action Potential :
    What does propagation allow?
    What causes local currents?
    What do local currents then cause?
    What do they trigger?
    What happens then?
    • - allows AP to serve as a signaling device.
    • - Na+ influx causes local currents.
    • - Local current then cause depolarization of adjacent membrane areas in direction away from AP origin (toward axon's terminals.)
    • - This causes the AP to propagate AWAY from the AP origin.

    - Since Na+ channels closer to AP origin are inactivated, no new AP is generated there.
  70. Propagation of an Action Potential :
    Once initiated an AP is self-propagatin 
    In....
    Differs...?
    • - in nonmyelinated axons each successive segment of membrane depolarizes, then depolarizes. 
    • - Propagation in myelinated axons differs.
  71. Absolute Refractory Period :
    • - When voltage gates Na+ channels open neuron cannot respond to another stimulus. 
    • - Absolute refractory period: time from opening of Na+ channels until resetting of the channels. Enforces one-way transmission of nerve impulses.

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