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What did Freud believe behaviour was motivated by?
- Instinctual innate drives made up of the ID, EGO and superego
- Behaviour is also motivated by the Eros (life drive) and Thanatos (death drive)
What did Freud say about the conscious mind?
- It does not provide an accurate picture of who we are
- Our understanding of ourselves is distorted by defence mechanisms in order to protect us
- These mechanisms originate in the unconscious mind so we are unaware that we are defending ourselves
What did Freud say about early childhood experiences?
- Especially when involving parents, they are important important and vital influences on the adult personality
- How a young child handles conflict and unpleasant experiences will be reflected in how the adult handles periods of stress and trauma
How many stages did Erik Erikson split his theory into? Give two examples
- The 8 ages of man
- At each stage there is a crisis to be resolved
- Successful resolution of the crisis provides the ego with a strength associated with that particular stage
- Failure to resolve the stage leads to the ego lacking the strength associated with the stage
- Stage 1: 0-1 years old, Basic trust vs Basic mistrust. Crisis= To gain a basic sense of trust in the world
What did Erikson believe was more important than Psychosexual development?
- Psychosocial development
- The greatest influence on psychological development is interactions of the child, teenager and adult with other people
- These people are parents, siblings and other significant people in their lives
What did Freud and Erikson say about personality structure
- They agreed on Freud's tripartite personality structure
- Id, Ego, Superego, Thanatos and Eros
What did Freud and Erikson say about developmental stages?
- They occur in stages
- They are genetically determined and therefore occur in a fixed, invariant sequence
What did Freud and Erikson say about conflict?
- At each stage a conflict must be faced and resolved otherwise fixation can occur
- Eg Harsh potty training= Anal retentive, failure to resolve stage 1 of Erikson's theory= General mistrust of others
How did Freud and Erikson differ with regards to social factors?
- Erikson placed much more emphasis on social factors than freud, stating that people developed psychosocially through relationships with significant others
- Freud focussed on psychosexual development and was concerned primarily with the unconscious effects of the sex instinct
How do Freud and Erikson differ in terms of timespan?
- Freud stated that development occurred only until puberty with the Genital stage occurring around then
- Erikson argued that development occurred throughout the person's life with the eighth stage occurring after 60 years of age
How did Freud and Erikson differ in their perception of conflict?
- Freud stated that the conflict involved only the family of the person
- Erikson argued that conflicts may include family but may also include school, peer groups, relationships and work
How does Erikson's theory differ from Freud's in terms of outlook ?
- Erikson was much more positive and optimistic in his view of human nature with skills learned as life progresses
- Freud believed that humans were locked in perpetual conflict and were inherently aggressive and jealous
How did freud and Erikson differ in terms of research methods?
- Erikson used a wider range of research methods and studied other cultures and individuals to provide evidence for his theory
- He used anthropological studies of native american groups and Psychobiographies of famous historical figures such as Martin Luther King
- Erikson also studied adolescents and children