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What did the elaboration likelihood model/Heuristic systematic model try to specify?
Which factors are the most important to persuasion under which circumstances for which people
Which are the 2 main types of factors for persuasion?
2 descriptions of central/systematic
-the content of the message or WHAT is said
- -requires thought and careful processing
- **hence elaboration likelihood model
3 descriptions of peripheral/heuristic
-presentation of the message or HOW it is said
-irrelevant to message content
- -uses quick n easy rules of thumb
Examples of central/systematic regarding argument quality
Strong: scientific study shows average rises in temperature correlated with greenhouse gas emissions
Weak: many people have noticed that this fall is unusually warm
5 factors important in Peripheral/heuristic
- -other rules of thumb
- *if many people agree, its probably right
Under which circumstances?) central/systematic (3)
-when the message is relevant
-when listened can pay attention
-when info is comprehensible
Under which circumstances?) Peripheral/ Heuristic (3)
-when the message is irrelevant
-when the listener is distracted or busy
-when in for is over your head or too complicated
What 2 consequences occur when you form an attitude through central route?
What 2 consequences occur when you form an attitude through peripheral route?
What does high relevance, high motivation, able to pay attention equate to?
Central/systematic factors or what is said
What does low relevance, low motivation, distracted equate to?
Peripheral heuristic factors or how it is said
Fear changes attitudes when...(4)
-negative consequences of not changing are made clear
-high probability that consequences will really occur if the recommended action is not taken
-recommended action is seen as effectively avoiding the negative circumstances.
How does mood influences depth of processing? (2)
-People in good mood tend to rely on peripheral processing
-people in a neutral or sad mood rely on peripheral processing.
When is the peripheral/heuristic route processing most likely to operate in?
When people aren't thinking too hard
What was the conclusion of the phone interview and life satisfaction?
Your background mood can influence decisions and judgments (heuristic/peripheral factor) but mostly when you're not thinking too hard about it.
What is a subliminal message?
words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but supposedly influence thoughts feelings and behavior
What does research say about subliminal messages?
Subliminal messages do not work
Conclusion of the subliminal influence on neutral stimuli experiment
Participants rated ideographs more positively when paired with happy face and more negatively with angry face
3 things that occur, attitude inoculation
-exposed people to small doses of arguments against their position
-refute the arguments
-people become immune to future persuasive appeals
What is reactance theory?
- When persuasive message threatens perceived freedom an unpleasant state is aroused.
- *this state is reduced by performing prohibited behavior
- **if they tell you not to do something you are more inclined to try it out