The earliest scientific theory of human development was devised by Sigmund Freud, a physician from Vienna Austria in 19th century. Freud concluded that consistent among mental patients was a traumatic experience during childhood
. This traumatic experienced become repressed in the unconscious mind and shaped the personality and mental functioning of an individual even they don't remember it. Freud developed the first method of psychotherapy called psychoanalysis
which to bring the unconscious trauma to consciousness. Psychoanalyst is the basis of psychosexual theory. Freud believed that sexual desire
is the driving force in human development. Sexual desire begins in the part of ming called ID, pleasure principle
; which is constantly seeking immediate satisfaction.Superego, restricts
the satisfaction of desire and makes the child guilty for disobeying; Ego
, operates on reality principle
and serves as a mediator.
- INFANCY: Oral stage which the sexual sensations are concentrated in the mouth ie sucking, chewing, biting.
- TODDLERHOOD: Anal, 1-1.5y derived their pleasure from eliminating and fascination of feces.
- EARLY CHILDHOOD: Phallic Stage, 3-6y, Most important stage of all. Sexual sensation moves to genitals. Sexual desire for other-sex parent and fear of same sex parent.
- MIDDLE CHILDHOOD: Latency Stage, 6-puberty, Sexual desire repressed; focus on developing social and cognitive skills.
- ADOLESCENCE: Genital, The sexual desire reemerge, now directed outside the family.
- For Freud, everything important in development happens before adulthood. Personality development is completed at 6. Too much or too less fulfillment of each stages affects a persons future development. Example; child who had been overly frustrated during oral stage may develop smoking, nibbling on fingernails during adulthood. The only way to remove this diviance (fixation) is by psychoanalysis.