Psych II Human Growth & Development

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Psych II Human Growth & Development
2014-04-07 01:49:14
Human Growth and Development
Human Growth and Development
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  1. What are the region of the brain?
    • Frontal lobe - executive control and decision making.
    • Parietal Lobe - sensory and body touch.
    • Occipital Lobe - information and visual fields.
    • Temporal Lobe - basic function,a breathing and heart beat.
  2. What is axon and dendrites?
    Axon releases neurotransmitter and Dendrites receive the neurotransmitter.
  3. What is Cephalocaudal?
    Growth of infant beginning from top (head) to tail (downward).
  4. What is Corpus Colusum?
    Corpus Colussum connects the left and right lobe of the brain. It allows for lateral transfer of information from one side of the brain to the other.
  5. What are the four stages of sleep cycle?
    • Stage 1 - hypnogenic 5-15 minutes
    • Stage 2 - sleep spindles (Alpha Waves) short burst.
    • Stage 3 - Delta Waves 20-30 min solid sleep
    • Stage 4 - REM Dream occurs
  6. What is APGAR Scales?
    • Scales use for newborn assessment.
    • A-Appearance
    • P-Pulse Rate
    • G-Grimace
    • A-Activity and muscle tone
    • R-Respiration
  7. What is considered low, very low,extremely low birth weight?
    • Low - 5.5 lbs
    • Very Low - 3.3 lbs
    • Extremely Low -2.2 lbs 50% chance of not making it before 25 weeks.
  8. What is the average weight of a newborn?

    will loose 10% after a few weeks.
  9. What are the type of Genotype?
    • 1. Passive Genotype-more environment, no gene.
    • 2. Evocative Genotype-child interest, encourage by parents.
    • 3. Active Genotype-child has gene and the environment seeks the child.
  10. What is Epigenesis?
    Balance between gene and environment.
  11. What is Heritability?
    Heretability is the calculated estimation of genes that are responsible for genes among persons in the population.
  12. What is miosis?
    • Process in which gametes develop.
    • Gametes develop form in the testes and ovaries through miosis process.

    A process of separation and duplication of chromosomes. 23/46/23+23/23:23
  13. What is mitosis?
    Process of cell replication which the chromosomes duplicates themselves and devides into two cells.
  14. Describe the first trimester?
    • Germinal Period 1-2 weeks, zygote divide and form blastocyst. Implanted in the uterus, forms the amion, placenta, umbilical cord.
    • Embryonic Periood 3-4 weeks, Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Ecdoderm develop. Heart, rib, muscles development also occur.
    • 5-8 weeks, arms, legs, fingers, umbilical cords, placenta, embryo respond to touch.
    • Fetal: 9-12, genitals form,release sex hormones, heart beat audible to telescope.
  15. What is HOMINID?
    Evolutionary line that led to human.
  16. What is the differences between us and the chimpansees?
    The most important difference between early humanids and chimps was the development of BIPEDAL LOCOMOTION.

    . Freed the hand for other task
  17. When did the UPPER PALEOLITHIC PERIOD occur?
    From 40.000 to 10,000 years ago when distinct human cultures first develop.

    • . Art appeared 
    • . Boat was invented
    • . Humans begin to barry their dead
    • . Trade took place human groups
  18. When did the NEOLITHIC PERIOD occur?
    10,000 to 5,000 years ago.

    • . Human broadened their food sources by domesticating animals and cultivating plants.
    • . Huge hunted animals became extinct.
    • . Warmer climate allowed for farming.
  19. When did the CIVILIZATION occur?
    Beginning at 5000 years ago.

    • . Cities, writing, centralized political system known as STATE. 
    • . The first civilization develop the same time in Egypt, Sumer (part of what is now known as Iraq).
  20. Ancient Conception And Development    pg. 17

    Explain Darmashastras?
    The oldest known conception of life. Darmashastras is the sacred LAW BOOK of Hindu religion, written 3000 years ago. There are 4 stages of man's life lasting 25 years Ideal life span of 100 years.
  21. What are the stages of Darmashastras?
    • Apprentice 0-25 - parent dependency 
    • Householder 26-50 - married and in-charge of his own household.
    • Forest Dweller 51-75 - man's first grandson is born. Withdraw from the world and live in the forest to pray and religious study.
    • Renunciant 75-100 - preparation for end of life and into the next (reincarnation).
  22. What is Solon and describe?
    • A conception of life by a philosopher Solon, from ancient Greece 2,500 years ago. Life sap  lasting 70 years in 10 years segment.
    • 0-7 Unripe
    • 7-14 Show in the bud (approaching manhood)
    • 14-21 Touch with fleecy down (growing limb).
    • 21-28 Ripens to greatest completeness, physically.
    • 28-35 Season of courting
    • 35-42 His mind ever open to virtue, stage of maturity of mind and moral.
    • 42-56 Two year year segment combined, tongue and mind are at their best.
    • 56-63 First sign of decline
    • 63-70 The end of life. The man has come to the point of time to depart on the ebb tide if death.
  23. What is TALMUD and explain?
    • Talmud is the Jews Holy Book, written in 1500 years ago. 
    • 5-beginning to read scriptures
    • 10-learn the Jewis Law
    • 13-moral responsibility
    • 15-being able to discuss the talmud
    • 18-wedding canopy
    • 20-seeking occupation
    • 30-attaining full strength
    • 40-understanding
    • 60-be,coming an elder and attaining wisdom
    • 70- white hair
    • 80-reaching new strength at old age
    • 90-bent under the weight of years
    • 100-being as already dead, passed away from the world.
  24. Compare and contrast the three conceptions of human development?
    All are ideal conceptions of human development. A view of how we develop if all goes well. Preparation for life is made in youth; skills, and expertise are gained in adulthood, wisdom and peace Are the fruits of old age.

    One important differences is that they have very different ways of dividing up the life span. Human development are only partially biological, but cultural and social as well.
  25. Scientific Conception of Human Development 
    page 19

    Summarized Freud's Psychosexual Theory
    • The earliest scientific theory of human development was devised by Sigmund Freud, who was a physician in Vienna, Austria, in the late 19 century. While working with persons suffering from mental illness, Freud concluded a consistent theme across patients was that they seemed to have experienced some kind of traumatic event in childhood. The trauma is then baried in subconscious mind and continue thereafter to shape their personality and mental functioning. Freud develop PSYCHOANALYSIS, to bring unconscious memories to consciousness, which is enough to heal the patient.
    •      Freud's psychosexual theory of development emphasized the sexual drive as the primary motivator of human behavior. He proposed five stages of psychosexual development, but believed that early stages were crucial and that most of later development was determine by age 6.
  26. Define and explain the ff;
    • ID - Pleasure Principle. Constantly seeking unrestrained and immediate satisfaction.
    • EGO - Reality Principle. Seeks satisfaction within certain parameters of the superego. What  makes sense.
    • SUPER-EGO - Conscience. Restricts the satisfaction of desire and make a child feel GUiLt.
  27. What is Freud's Psychosexual Stages and explain?
    • INFANCY - Oral - sexual sensation centered on the mouth. Pleasure derived from sucking, chewing, biting.
    • TODDLERHOOD - Anal - sexual sensations centered on the anus; high interest inn feces,pleasure derived from elimination.
    • EARLY CHILDHOOD - Phallic - sexual sensation move to genitals, sexual desire for other-sex parent and fear of other sex parent.
    • MIDDLE CHILDHOOD - Latency - sexual desires repressed, focus on social and cognitive skills.
    • ADOLESCENCE - Genital - reemergence of sexual desire, now directed outside the family.
  28. What is Erickson's Psychosocial Theory?
    • Erickson was trained as a psychoanalysts in Vienna. Erickson proposed two theory of development with two crucial differences from Freud; First, psychosocial theory, in which the driving force behind development was not sexual but the need to become integrated into social and cultural environment. Second, Erickson viewed development as continuous throughout the lifespan, not determine solely by the early years as in Freud's theory.
    •      In his 8 stages theory, each stages is characterized by distinctive crisis with two possible resolutions, one healthy an one unhealthy. A successful resolution of the crisis prepares the person to the next stage of development. However, a person who has difficulties in stage enters the next stage at high risk being unsuccessful at that crisis as well.
  29. Chapter 2

    What is Allele?
    Allele is a form of gene from each pair of chromosomes from mother or father.
  30. What are the Three Forms Of  Genotype?
    • Passive
    • Evocative
    • Active
  31. Explain the three forms of Genotype?
    • Passive Genotype - Genes and Environment are provided to the children. Child got the gene from father, then father nurtured the child's talent.
    • Evocative Genotype a persons characteristics evoke responses from others in the environment.
    • Active Genotype - when people seek out environment that correspond to their genotypic characteristic.  "Niche-picking", a person who knows he can run faster seeks to compete in a marathon; a person who is tall and run faster than his peers seeks to compete in sports when he knows his physical traits is advantageous.
  32. What is Mitosis?
    Process if cell replication in which the chromosomes duplicate themselves and the cell divides into two cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
  33. What is miosis?
    Process by which gametes are generated, through separation and duplication of chromosomes pairs, ending in four new gametes from the original cell, each with HALF the number of chromosomes of the ORIGINAL cell.
  34. What is Crossing Over?
    Exchange of genetic material between paired chromosomes during meiosis phase.
  35. What is Zygote? Describe.
    • After the sperm reach the ovum, they begin to penetrate the surface of the cell. Once the sperm penetrates the the ovums membrane, the head of sperm detaches and continues to move towards the nucleus of the cell.. The moment a sperm breakthrough, chemical changes takes place in the ovum that prevents other sperm from getting in. 
    •      When the sperm head reaches the nucleus,  the final stage of meiosis is triggered in the ovum. Fertilization takes place as the 23 chromosomes from the ovum mixed with 23 from sperm; together forms a new cell called zygote.
  36. Prenatal Development                          
    page 59

    Describe the First Trimester of Pregnancy?
    • First Trimester
    • Germinal Period - 1-2 weeks, Zygote divides and forms blastocyst, which implants in the uterus and begins forming the amnion placenta, and umbilical cords. The first cell division does not occur until 30 hours after conception. 1 week after conception, there is a ball with 100 cells know as a blastocyst. Divided in two layer, outer layer Trophoblast and inner layer Embryonic Disk. 2nd week, implantation occurs, as blastocyst becomes firmly embedded into the lining of the uterus. The blastocyst moves to the uterus and nourish by a bath of blood caused by hormones generated by follicles from the ovary.The Amnion, Placenta, and Umbilical Cord forms.

    • Embryonic Period - 3-4 weeks, formation of ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm; neural tube develops and produce neurons. Heart beats, ribs, muscle and digestive tract form. 
    •                                 5-8 weeks, arm, legs, fingers, toes, develop. Digestive system develops and the liver begins to produce blood. Heart develop's separate chambers.
    •                                  8 weeks, the embryo is just 1 inch, Embryo responds to touch. Placenta and umbilical cords functions.

    • Fetal Period - 9-12
    • Genital form and release sex hormones. Finger nails, toe nails, taste buds, develop. Heart beat is audible through stethoscope.
  37. Describe the Second Trimester of Pregnancy?
    • Second Trimester
    • 13-14 Weeks - Mother feels movement, fetus kicks, turns,hiccups, sucks thumbs, breathes amniotic fluid, responds to sounds, vernix and lanugo develop on skin. Slimy white substance called Vernix covers the skin to protect it from chapping due to amniotic fluid. Lanugo is a downy skin hair that helps the vernix sticks. Babies sheds their lanugo after birth.
  38. Describe the Third Trimester of Pregnancy?
    • Third Trimester
    • 25-38 - Lungs develop fully, over 2/3 of birth weights is gained, brain development accelerates, sleep-wake cycle resembles newborn's. 6 months after conception, fetus is about 14 inches. Weights about 2 lbs. babies born before 22 weeks rarely survives. Born at 26 weeks has 50% chance of survival. LUNGS is the last organ to become VIABLE. The main obstacle to viability at the beginning of the third semester is the immaturity of the lungs. Brain is less mature the lungs during birth. Therefore, humans need nurturing and parental care longer than any animals.
  39. TERATOGEN: Prenatal Develpoment pg. 68

    Identify the major TERATOGENS in developing and developed countries?
    • 1. MALNUTRITION - 40% of the worlds population lives in under $2 a day. 40% of prenatal care falls far short of ideal.
    • 2. INFECTIOUS DECEASES - prevalent in developing countries. Rubela, AIDS.
    • 3. ALCOHOL - in developed countries, use of alcohol during pregnancy.Heavy drinking at pregnancy causes Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder FASD, includes facial deformities, heart problems and cognitive problems.
    • 4. TOBACCO - infant heart problems due to maternal smoking.
    • 5. MALNUTRINTIONS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES are the most common TERANOGENS in developing country
  40. What is TERATOGENS?
    A teratogen is anything that can disrupt the development of an embryo or fetus in a pregnant mother's womb
  41. What is Obstetrics?
    The branch of medicine concerned with pregnancy and childbirth, including the study of the physiologic and pathologic function of the female reproductive tract and the care of the mother and fetus throughout pregnancy, childbirth, and the immediate postpartum period.
  42. What is OBGYN?
    An OBSTETRICIAN is a physician who has successfully completed specialized education and training in the management of pregnancy, labor, and pueperium (the time-period directly following childbirth).

    A GYNECOLOGIST is a physician who has a successfully completed specialized education and training in the health of the female reproductive system, including the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and diseases.
  43. What is a Fontanelle?
    Fontanelle is a soft spot on the skull between loosely joined pieces of the skull that shift during birth process to assist passage through the birth canal.
  44. What is considered a LOW BIRTH WEIGHT?
    At birth, weight less than 5.5 lbs (2500 grams).
  45. What is considered VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT?
    Term for neonates who weighs less than 3.3 lbs (1500 grams) at birth.
  46. What is considered EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT?
    Term for neonates who weight less than 2.2 lbs (1000 grams) at birth.
  47. What is the difference between CEPHALOCAUDAL vs. PROXIMODISTAL Principle?
    CEPHALOCAUDAL - <Head to Tail> a growth of infancy that tends to begin from the top, with the head, and then proceed downward to the rest of the body.

    PROXIMODISTAL - <Near To Far> growth proceeds from the middle of the body outward. Example; the trunk and arms grow faster than the hands and fingers.
  48. Define the following terms:
    • Axon-long neuron fiber that carries electrical impulses (neurons), connected to dendrites.
    • Neurotransmitters-chemical-messenger that travels along the axon.
    • Dendrites-receiver of neurotransmitter and conductor of neurotransmitter to the cell body.
    • Synapses-point at which the neurochemical message is relayed to the dendrites of another neuron.
  49. What are the types of Neurotransmitters?
    • Acetylcholine-found in peripheral NS, spinal cord, brain; neurotransmitter responsible for muscle stimulation, involve in learning and memory (Alzeimers).
    • Dopamine-produce in the brain, is a neurotransmitter that helps control reward and pleasure. Dopamine also helps regulate movement and emotional responses, and it enables us not only to see rewards, but to take action to move toward them. Dopamine deficiency is called Parkinson's decease.
    • Serotonin-in the central nervous system, helps regulate mood, appetite, and arousal. This hormone can be considered a "happy" hormone, as it greatly influences an overall sense of well-being. It also helps to regulate moods, temper anxiety, and relieve depression. It is also credited with being a natural sleep aid. 
    • Endorphins-released during exercise, gives us exercise high, lessens pain, pain killer, helps us deal with pain and produce pleasurable sensation.
  50. What are the four lobe of the brain?
    • Frontal Lobe 
    • Parietal Lobe
    • Temporal Lobe
    • Occipital Lobe
  51. What are the primary structures of the LYMBIC SYSTEM?
    • Hypothalamus - monitoring and regulation of our basic animal function including hunger, thirst, and sexual desires.
    • Thalamus - receiving and transfer center of body's sensory information.
    • Hippocampus - crucial in memory specially for transfer of Short-Term to Long-Term memory storage.
  52. What is CEREBRAL CORTEX?
    • Cerebral Cortex is the most distinctive parts of the human brain. 
    • Cerebral Cortex accounts to 85% of the brains total weight.
    • Cerebral Cortex is the basis of human abilities, including speaking, understand problems, solve complex problems, think concept, ideas and symbol.

  53. What are the specialization of the two hemispheres of Cerebral Cortex?
    Two hemispheres of the brain are connected with neural fibers called CORPUS COLLOSUM that allows them to communicate (lateralization).

    • LEFT SIDE: specialized for language and processing in formation in sequential manner.
    • RIGHT SIDE: specialized for spatial reasoning and for processing information in holistic, integrative way.
  54. Pick 3 out of FIVE and write explain in one or two paragraph.
    • 1. Freud Psychosexual Theory
    • 2. Erickson Theory
    • 3. Pregnancy Theory
    • 4. 3 Things that happen in delivery
    • 5. Piagets
  55. Freud Psychosexual Theory, Discuss?
    The earliest scientific theory of human development was devised by Sigmund Freud, a physician from Vienna Austria in 19th century. Freud concluded that consistent among mental patients was a traumatic experience during childhood. This traumatic experienced become repressed in the unconscious mind and shaped the personality and mental functioning of an individual even they don't remember it. Freud developed the first method of psychotherapy called psychoanalysis which to bring the unconscious trauma to consciousness. Psychoanalyst is the basis of psychosexual theory. Freud believed that sexual desire is the driving force in human development. Sexual desire begins in the part of ming called ID, pleasure principle; which is constantly seeking immediate satisfaction.Superego, restricts the satisfaction of desire and makes the child guilty for disobeying; Ego, operates on reality principle and serves as a mediator.

    • INFANCY: Oral stage which the sexual sensations are concentrated in the mouth ie sucking, chewing, biting.
    • TODDLERHOOD: Anal, 1-1.5y derived their pleasure from eliminating and fascination of feces.
    • EARLY CHILDHOOD: Phallic Stage, 3-6y, Most important stage of all. Sexual sensation moves to genitals. Sexual desire for other-sex parent and fear of same sex parent.
    • MIDDLE CHILDHOOD: Latency Stage,  6-puberty, Sexual desire repressed; focus on developing social and cognitive skills.
    • ADOLESCENCE: Genital, The sexual desire reemerge, now directed outside the family.
    • For Freud, everything important in development happens before adulthood. Personality development is completed at 6. Too much or too less fulfillment of each stages affects a persons future development. Example; child who had been overly frustrated during oral stage may develop smoking, nibbling on fingernails during adulthood. The only way to remove this diviance (fixation) is by psychoanalysis.
  56. 3 Things That Happens in Delivery, Discuss
    • First Stage LABOR
    • Longest and most tasking stage lasting 12 hours (1s birth) 6 hours (2nd birth).
    • During labor, contraction of muscles in the uterus cause the cervix to delate up to 10 centimeters (4.5 inches) in preparation for the baby's exit.
    • As the cervix opens, there may be a thick, stringy, bloody discharge from the vagina known as "bloody show". The contraction must occur with increasing intensity, frequency and duration in order to move the fetus to down to the neck of the uterus for birthing. Women often experience severe back pain as the result of labor.
    • Second Stage DELIVERY: Takes 30 minutes
    • to 1 hour, contractions are now less, 60-90 seconds long. Crowning occurs when the baby's head appears on the vaginal opening.  Episiotomy may be given to enlarge the vaginal opening (in the hospital setting). Common in during 1970 90% declined to 20% in 2000. 
    • Placenta and Umbilical Cord Delivery: once the baby is out, the contractions continue as the placenta and umbilical cord are expelled within 30 minutes of delivery. The new born triggers contraction that expel the placenta. Episiotomy will be stitched up and the umbilical cord will be tied and cut. The cutting and disposal of the placenta will follow the standard or religious preference of the family.
  57. Erickson's Theory, discuss?
    • Erikson proposed a psychosocial theory of development that emphasized social and cultural influences and proposed that important changes takes place throughout the lifespan. In his theory of eight stages throughout the life span, each stages is characterized by distinctive "crisis" with two possible solutions, one healthy and one unhealthy. The driving force is becoming integrated into the social and cultural environment. He viewed development as continuing throughout life span. Each stage is characterized by a challenge (crisis) that must be resolve. Successful resolution of the crisis prepares a person for the next stage of development. A person who has difficulty with one or two stages will have high risk for being unsuccessful at that crisis. 
    • Stage 1 INFANCY: Trust vs. Mistrust, bond with caregiver.
    • Stage 2 TODDLERHOOD: Autonomy vs Shame, Healthy sense of self as supposed to others.
    • Stage 3. EARLY CHILDHOOD: Initiate vs Guilt, Initiate activities in forceful way.
    • Stage 4. MIDDLE CHILDHOOD: Industry vs Inferiority.
    • Stage 5. ADOLESCENCE: Identity vs Identity confusion, develop a secure and coherent identity.
    • Stage 6. EARLY ADULTHOOD: Intimacy vs Isolation, Establish a commitment, long-term love relationship.
    • Stage 7. MIDDLE ADULTHOOD: Generatively vs Stagnation, care for others and contribute to well-being.
    • Stage 8. LATE ADULTHOOD: Ego Integrity vs Despair, Evaluate lifetime, accept it as it is.
  58. Pregnancy Periods, discuss?
  59. Chapter 5

    A condition specific to toddlerhood in which protein deficiencies lead to symptoms such as swollen bellies, hair loss, and lack of energy?
  60. What most characterizes as early brain development in toddlerhood?
    The steep increase in density of synaptic connections among neurons.
  61. During toddlerhood________?
    sleeping alone is rare in traditional culture
  62. Toddlers________?
    in traditional cultures are equal toddlers from western cultures in development of their gross motor skills.
  63. In the west_______?
    a sign of being ready to begin toilet training is when a child can stay dry for an hour or two during the day.
  64. If you are toddler from a traditional culture, you would likely?
    have experienced some customary practiced for being weaned.
  65. When children generally avoid making the A-not-B error, they?
    have obtained object permanence.
  66. According to Vygotsky__________is required for development?
    social interaction
  67. When it comes to learning what w consider language, the most significant difference between apes and humans is?
    the inability of apes to generate word symbols in an infinite number of ways
  68. Which is an example of over extension?
    a child calling all men dada
  69. Research has shown that?
    direct stimulation of language development is discourage in some cultures
  70. Which of the following is a sociomoral emotion?

  71. Researchers secretly dabbed a red spot on the nose of babies of different ages and then placed them in front of a mirror. they were testing?
  72. Gender identity?
    refers to the ability of children to identify themselves as male and female.
  73. Secure attachment is characterized by?
    a willingness to use the caregiver as a secure base to explore the environment
  74. Research has shown that a child with an ______ attachment classification is most likely to have later problems such as hostility, psychopathology, and cognitive deficits?
  75. Attachments across cultures best described as?
    in all cultures, infant and toddlers develop attachments to the people around them who provide loving protective care.
  76. In developed countries, fathers would most likely be observed in which of the following activity with their infants or toddler?
    playing with them
  77. During toddlerhood?
    friendship seems to have the same feature of friendships at other age.
  78. A behavior that would most characterized a child diagnosed with autism?
    a preoccupation of repetitive movement
  79. Research on the media has shown that?
    the effect of television and other media depends on the content
  80. Chapter 6 Early Childhood (page 231)

    Describe a typical American Child's growth?
    • Age 3-6
    • Grows 2-3 inches
    • Weighs 5-7lbs

    Note: Lower in developing countries
  81. Early Childhood: Brain Development. (pg 232)

    Describe the brain development of early childhood?
    • At age 3, brain is about 70% of its adult weight.
    • At age 9, 90%
    • Frontal lobe grows faster than the rest of the cerebral cortex.
    • From 3-15, growth of cerebral cortex spurts      within different lobes; followed by vigorous synaptic pruning.
  82. What is synaptic pruning?
    Synatic Pruning is the reduction of neurons that began during toddlerhood.
  83. What is corpus collossum?
    A band of neural fibers connecting the right and left hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
  84. What is cerebellum?
    Structure at the base of the brain involved in balance and motor movements.
  85. What is hippocampus?
    Involve in transfer of information from short to long-term memory.
  86. What is infantile amnesia?
    Inability to remember anything prior to age two.
  87. What is Reticular Formation?
    Controls attention
  88. Nutrition and Malnutrition (pg. 233).

    Describe the nutritional deficiency during early childhood?
    • Lack of Iron
    • Lack of Protein 25% of children.
    • Iron Deficiency anemia.
    • Calcium
  89. Motor Skills (pg.237Describe the development of handedness and identify the consequences of left -handedness?
    • Handedness appears long before childhood
    • Fetus- shows indication of dominant hand by suckling the thumb from dominant hand.
    • Handedness is the preferential use or either left or right hand in gross fine motor activity.
    • Left-handedness carries a negative cultural stigma such as being prone to accidents, learning disabilities, difficulty during birth. Left-handedness is also associated with being genius and excellence in certain fields.
  90. What is ego-centrisism?
    Inability to distinguish between your own perspective and otter person's perspective.
  91. Childhood Disorder:

    What is reversibility?
    Ability to reverse an action mentally.
  92. What is conservation?
    Mental ability to understand that the quantity of a substance to material remains the same even if its appearance changes.
  93. What is centration?
    Piaget's term for young children's thinking as being centered or focused on one noticeable aspect of cognitive problem to the exclusion of other important aspect.
  94. What is pre-operational stage?
    Piaget's description of ages 2 to 7, where children of this age were not able to perform mental operations, that is, cognitive procedures that follow certain logical procedures.
  95. What is Egocentrism?
    Inability to distinguish between ounces own perspective and another person's perspective.
  96. What is animism?
    Another aspect of egocentrism, the tendency to attribute human thoughts and feelings to inanimate objects or force.

    ie; children playing with toy animals or dolls.
  97. What is classification?
    Ability to recognized that objects can be part of more than one cognitive group.

    ie: red object; red circle object.
  98. Pre-operational substages (pg 242).

    What is symbolic function substage?
    Lasting from about age 2-age 4., child becomes capable of representing his thoughts and using symbols to represent the word.
  99. What is Intuitive Thoughts Substage?
    • Ages 4 to 7
    • The second substage of pre operational stage.
    • During this stage, children's becomes highly curious about his surroundings.
    • Kids at this stage constantly asking why?
    • ie; They don;t know why their answer is right.
  100. Pragmatics:(pg. 251)

    What is pragmatics?
    Social and cultural context of language that guides people as to what is appropriate to say and not to say in a given social situation.

    example: Children learn in the course of their childhood to say "Thank You" when given something.
  101. What is emotional regulation?
    In the corse of early childhood, children became adapt to understanding the sources of other peoples emotion.

    ie: waiting in line for your turn; self restraint.
  102. What are the 2 types of self-regulation of emotion?
    • 1. Over Control = increase in degree of self-regulation.
    • 2. Under control = decrease the degree of self regulation.
  103. Initiative vs Guilt: (pg.253).

    What is initiate vs guilt theory?
    According to Erickson, early childhood is the stage of initiative and guilt.

    Children need to learn emotional control without being too regulated and it undermined their ability to initiate activities.
  104. Parenting: (pg. 259)

    Describe the Four Types of Parenting.
    Authoritative Parents = High in Demand/Low Responsiveness. Goal: Require obedience from their children and punish disobedient attitude without compromise.

    Permissive Parents = Low in Demand/High Responsiveness. Goal: Few expectation from their children and rarely discipline their child.

    Disengaged Parents = Low demand/Low Response. Goal: to minimized time and emotion devoted to children.
  105. What is Filial Piety?
    Believe that children should respect, obey, and revere their parents throughout life; common in asian culture.
  106. What is familisimo?
    A pillar of latino culture that emphasizes the love, closeness, and mutual obligation of latino family life.
  107. Discipline and Punishment: (pg. 262).

    Describe the main cultural variations in how parents discipline young children?
    By early childhood,  children become capable of emotional and behavioral self-regulation.

    Cultural Variation: Time out chair!
  108. What is psychological control?
    parenting strategy that uses shame and withdrawal of love to influence children's behavior.
  109. Physical Punishment: (pg. 264)

    What is Corporal Punishment?
    Physical punishment of children.
  110. Chapter 7. (pg 286)
    Growth in Middle Childhood

    Describe the growth in middle childhood?
    • Children progress from pre operational stage to stage of concrete operation.
    • Exceptionally healthy time of life, less susceptible for diseases, less vulnerable to the effects of malnutrition, less likely to have accidents that results into injury.


    Physical problems become more common, such as..obesity, asthma, near-sightedness.


    • Obesity = children having BMI of 21
    • Overweight = children having a BMI exceeding 18
  111. What is Pagiet's theory of Concrete Operations?
    Pagiet's theory, which is a cognitive stage where children become capable of using mental operations (logic thinking).

    Around age 7, children make an important cognitive advantage towards becoming more systematic, logical thinkers, an planful.

    During this stage, children become capable of using mental operations, which allows them to organized an manipulate information mentally instead of relying on physical and sensory associations.

    Concrete Operations = performing task of conservation, classification, and seriation.
  112. Describe decentering?
    Decentering is a cognitive ability to look at a problem in different aspect and take it into account. i.e; width, length, shape and other features other aspect of the problem.

    Problem solving skills.
  113. What is seriation?
    • Ability to arrange things in logical order.
    • example: shortest to longest, thinnes to thickest, lightest to darkness.
  114. What is transitive interference?
    Ability to place mental object in a logical conversation.

    During seriation, Pagiet found that during concrete operation, children develop the ability to seriate mentally.

    Pagiet consider this as crucial to learning to think logically and systematically.
  115. What is ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder)?
    • About 6-7, children in school settings requires to pay attention to their teacher's instruction.
    • Difficulties in maintaining attention is diagnosed as ADHD. 
    • Children with ADHD have difficulty following instructions and waiting for their turn.
  116. Memory (pg. 298)

    In middle childhood, the capacity of working memory enlarges. Typical 4 year old remembers 4 digits of numbers. A typical 12 years old remembers 7, which equal adults. MIddle childhood is the period when children first learn to use__________. Expand?
    Mnemonics (memory strategies).

    Such as...

    Rehearsal - a simple effective mnemonics by repeating the information over and over.

    Organization -  placing things in a meaningful categories, is another effective memory strategy.

    Elaboration - commonly used in middle school which involves transforming bits of information in a the way that connects them.
  117. Intelligence and intelligence test: (pg. 299)

    What is intelligence?
    A capacity for acquiring knowledge, reasoning, and solving problems.

    Intelligence test is usually provide an overall score of general intelligence as well as several sub-scores that reflects different aspects of intelligence.

    Review chart in page 300.
    Originally develop to test children's abilities as they entered school. 

    IQ score is calculated relative to the performance of other people at the same age.

    • Consist of eleven subtest
    • 6 verbal subtest
    • All provides an overall IQ (Intelligence Quotient).

    • Normal distribution = resembles a bell curve, proportion decreases as the low and high extremes.
    • Mental retardation: score of 70 or below on IQ tests.
    • Gifted:  IQ test scores of 130 and above.

    • Genetics contribute strongly to IQ scores.
    • The closer the genetic relationship, the higher the correlation in IQ.

    Proven to be a good predictor for children's academic performance.
  119. Gardner's conception of Intelligence. (pg. 303).

    What are the 8 distinct types of intelligence according to Gardner?
    Theory of Multiple Intelligences includes 8 types of intelligence.

    In Gardner's view, only linguistic-logical and mathematical intelligences are evaluated in the intelligence tests. 

    • The other intelligences are spatial (ability to think three-dimentionally);
    • - Musical
    • - Bodily-Kinestetic (athletes and dancers)
    • - Naturalist (understanding natural phenomena)
    • - Interpersonal (ability to interact with others)
    • - Intrapersonal (self-understanding)

    Gardner argues that school should give more attention to the development of 8  kinds of intelligence and design programs that should tailor to each child's individual profile of intelligence.
  120. Sternbergs Theory of Intelligence (pg.303).

    What is Thiarchic Theory of Intelligence?
    Sternberg's theory that there are three distinct but related forms of intelligence.

    Analytical Intelligence - is Sternberg's term for the kind of intelligence that the IQ measures, which involves acquiring, storing, analyzing, and retrieving information.

    Creative Intelligence - Involves the ability to combine information in original ways to produce new insights, ideas, and problem solving strategies.

    Practical Intelligence - Ability to apply information in real life problems, including the capacity to evaluate social situations.

    According to Sternberg's extensive research in Americans, each person has a different profile in three intelligences that can be assessed. He proposed that the three components are universal and contribute to intelligent performance in all cultures.
  121. REVIEW: ESSAY # 1

    Parenting Styles
    • Parenting Style is a practice of cultural parameters that parents use to influenced their children's moral core and beliefs during development. 
    • Scholars have conducted extensive research for over 50 years and commonly described parenting in two terms of dimensions; demandingness and responsiveness. When combined, these two dimensions create describes different kinds of parenting styles. 
    • Perhaps, the most popular style of parenting  was articulated by DIANNA BAUMRIND, while researching on middle-class White American.
    • Inspired by her ideas, scholars have identified four distinct styles of parenting. 
    • Authoritative Parents are parents with HIGH demands and HIGH in responsiveness. They set the rules clearly and they leave no room for mistakes. The rules are often explained thoroughly, to include the consequences of not abiding with it. Children with authoritative parents are often engage in deep discussion over discipline and possible compromise.
    • They are loving and caring for their children in spite of their high expectations. 
    • Authoritarian Parents - are HIGH in demands but LOW in responsiveness. 
    • They expect their commands to be obeyed without dispute or compromise. 
    • Authoritarian parents do not tolerate questions of authority; they would simply say no.
    • This type of parenting style does not offer a two way communication. Therefore, their children responds less and shows little emotional attachments to their parents.
    • Permissive Parents - are LOW in demandingness and HIGH in responsiveness. 
    • Permissive parents have few clear expectations for their children. 
    • They rarely discipline their kids fearing that discipline would have a negative effect on their children's healthy tendency of developing creativity and self-expression. 
    • Children with permissive parents are often allowed to do what they please with a great deal little or no restrictions.
    • Disengaged Parents - are LOW in demandingness and LOW in responsiveness. 
    • This type of parenting style shows little emotional attachments and little investments in parents-children relationship. 
    • They set no clear parameters or rules for their kids to follow.
    • They required little of their children and rarely correct their behaviors.
    • Due to lack of emotional connections and concerns with their children, there's a weak bond between the children and parents.
  122. REVIEW: ESSAY # 2

    Kohlberg's "Theory of Moral development".
    • Lawrence Kohlberg believed that moral thinking changes in predictable ways as cognitive abilities develop, regardless of culture.
    • Kohlberg conducted a test with middle-class boys aged 10,13,16 in Chicago area; presenting them with series of fictional dillemas; each elicit moral reasoning.
    • Kohlberg focused on adolescent MORAL REASONING, and not how each children's conclusion is right or wrong. 
    • Kohlberg developed a system of classifying moral reasoning, with two subsets in each level.
    • Level 1. Pre conventional Reasoning- is a level of reasoning based on reward and punishment. We do what we do based on consequences. 2 SUBSETS 
    • Stage 1. Punishment and Obedience Orientation - rules should be followed to avoid punishment from authorities.
    • Stage 2. Individualism and Purpose Orientation- doing what's right satisfies oneself, and self satisfaction comes from doing what is right to others.
    • Level 2. Conventional Reasoning-  level of moral reasoning based on expectation of others.
    • Stage 3. Interpersonal Concordance Orientation-Care and loyalty to others is the main emphasis. Being a good person to others.
    • Stage 4. Social System Orientation-moral judgements are based in concepts of social order, law, fairness and justice that is essential to maintain social order.
    • Level 3. Post Conventional Reasoning-Level of reasoning based on personal judgements.
    • Stage 5. Community Rights and Individual Rights Orientation-reasoning which look at laws of society as significant, but also important to revise from time-to-time to maintain the fulfillment of ideals.
    • Stage 6. Universal Ethical Principle Orientation-universal laws of society is contradictory to this moral principle. A person developed his own moral code based on universal principles.

    Kohlberg theory of moral development suggested that moral reasoning tended to increased with age; and preceded in predicted way.
  123. REVIEW: ESSAY # 3

    Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
    Pagiet devised a theory of cognitive development to describe the stages of childen's thought process as they grow up.

    • From age 0-2, Piaget called this the Sensory Motor Stage-That involves learning how to coordinate the activities of the senses with motor activities ie, reaching and grasping.
    • Age 2-7, Pre-operational Stage- During this stage, children of this age were not yet able to perform mental operations or follow certain logical rules. Piaget emphasizes on preoperational cognitive mistakes specific to early childhood. 
    • Children in early childhood lack the ability to understand CONSERVATION, which is a principle that describes the amount of physical substance is the same even if the physical appearance changed. 
    • According to Piaget, children's mistakes in conservation tasks indicates 2 cognitive deficiencies; 1. CENTRATION, meaning that young children is focused on one noticeable aspect of a cognitive problem, while excluding other aspect. 2. REVERSABILITY, children's lack of the ability to reverse an action mentally.
    • Age 7-11, Concrete Operations- cognitive stage in which children become capable of using mental operations, which allows them to manipulate information mentally instead of relying on physical and sensory references.
    • The concrete operational child has the ability to 1. DECENTER that pre-operational child lacks. This advantage makes it possible to take more than one aspect of the problem into account. 2. CLASSIFICATION, an ability to sort objects and events, combined with mental logic, are another advances that concrete child exhibits. 3. SERIATION-the third achievement of concrete operations that emphasize the ability to arrange things in logical order.
    • Age 11-15 and Up, Formal Operations-is a cognitive stage which people learn think systematically about possibilities and hypotheses. It allows adolescent to reason about complex tasks and problems involving multiple variables.